It is impossible to confirm the origin of a culture and the date of its origin. Different tribes, classes, and societies gradually combined over a period of time and a transformed society had evolved. This is the evolution of a society.
Andhra society is one of the ancient societies of India. One can encounter several tales about Andhras in epics like Mahabharatam and Ramayanam, in great puranas, and Budhdhist Jataka Tales. This confirms the ancient nature of Andhra society.

Andhras and Kalingas (ka’Limgulu) supported the Kauravas during the battle between Kauravas and Pandavas (the Bharata yudhdham). Sahadeva defeated the kingdoms of Pandya, Dravida, Odhra, Kerala, Andhra, and Kalinga while performing the Rajasooya yajna. This is depicted in the Mahabharatam. Chanoora (ca’NooruDu) was killed by Srikrishna in Madhura. Harivamsapuranam corroborates the fact that Chanoora was the king of Karoosa Desa (karooSa dESam) (on the North side of Vindhya and on the North banks of Yamuna river) and was an Anhdra (Andhrudu) too.

Ramayanam depicts an interesting tale. Viswamitra condemned the “Naramedha Yagam”, freed Sunassepu (SunaSSEpu, the yajna paSuvu), and adopted him as his son. Viswamitra’s children diliked this act by thier father and were cursed. Then Viswamitra’s children migrated towards east and south. It is understood from this tale that these children of Viswamitra were Andhras (a’mdhrulu).

A tribe called “Andhras” arrived at the banks of Yamuna river during the Mahabharata war (1500 BC). This is clearly described in the epic.

Mahabharata war has a prominent place in the ancient history. Several kings of different tribes fought in this battle. Several thousands of soldiers lost their lives. Kauravas were destroyed. Innumerable number of tiny kingdoms mushroomed. Locust infestation destroyed crops on the banks of Ganges and Yamuna rivers. People inhabiting those regions migrated 300 miles away to south. Chandogyopanishat (Ca’mdOgyOpanishad) confirms this. Iatreya (aitarEya bra’hmaNam) Brahmanam tells us that Andhras lived on the south side of Vindhya along with Pundrapulinda Sabara Mootibas (punDrapulimda Sabara mootibulu). Chandogyopanishad and Itareya Brahmanam were written in 1000 BC.

Andhras were nomads for several centuries. Some tribes (classes) migrated and others did not want to do so and remained in their older settlements. During 700 BC some Andhra tribes inhabited the Salvadesa (sa’lvadESamu) on the banks of Yamuna River. The tale of Apastambarushi (a’pastambaRushi) explains this. Apastamba rules (a’pastamba gruhya sootra’lu) have been widely in practice among Andhra Brahmin families today. A single Rushi was the teacher (a’ca’rya) of each tribe. Apastamba was one such teacher. Apastamba wrote these rules in Salvadesam on the banks of Yamuna river. After Apastamba’s death the Andhra tribes crossed the Vindhya mountains, reached the South, and merged with the other Andhra tribes.

Some of those Andhras who came to the south settled on the west side of Vindhya mountains (present Northern regions of Hyderabad). Another tribe crossed the Eastern Ghats over Orissa and reached the Kalinga Desam. “Serivanijo” Jataka tale explains that Andhras built the “ANDHAKAPURAM” on the banks of “Tel” (tEl) river.

Jataka tales were written during 200-250 BC. Tel river is a subriver of Mahanadi in Orissa. This confirms that one of the Andhra tribes migrated this way. The people in this tribe are Kalingas (ka’Limgulu). The books cited above describe the Andhras and Kalingas as two different branches of a single tribe. Sometimes these two words (Andhras and Kalingas) are used as synonyms interchangeably.

Andhra tribes established relationships with Naga, Yaksha, and Dravida tribes of Vindhya mountains who already were living there then. Telugu, Tamil, and Kannada are Dravidian languages. Rayalaseema was the first settlement of Tenugu (identify here! TENUGU is used here) people. Later Telangana was occupied. The name “Tenugu” transformed into “Telugu”. From “Telugu” words like “Telagalu”, “Telangana”, “Telanganyulu” (a subsect of Andhra Brahmins), and “Teligiri” originated. A tribe called “Tailang” (taila’ng) in Burma is proposed to be related to Telugu people.

Tenugu (tenugu) is the meaning for those who travel towards south. In Tamil and Kannada “ten” means south side (dakshina dikku).

The main languages spoken in Andhra Pradesh are Telugu, Urdu, Hindi, Banjara, and English followed by Tamil, Kannada, Marathi and Oriya. Telugu is the principal and official language of the State. It was also referred to as `Tenugu’ in the past. `Andhra’ is the name given to it since the medieval times. Some argued that `Telugu’ was a corruption of `Trilinga’ (Sanskrit meaning three `lingas’). A general description of the land of the Telugus was made in the medieval times as `the land marked by three lingas of the three famous shrines of Draksharamam (East Godavari district), Kaleswaram (Karimnagar district) and Srisailam (Kurnool district).

Telugu is the most widely spoken language of the Dravidian family which consists of 24 languages spanning the entire South-Asia, from Baluchistan to Sri Lanka. In terms of population, Telugu ranks second to Hindi among the Indian languages. According to the 1981* Census, Telugu is spoken by over 45 million in Andhra Pradesh. It has also spread to the other parts of the globe, i.e., Burma, Indo-China, South-Africa and the U.S.A. Being a mellifluous language, it is called, by its admirers as the `Italian of the East’.

Its vocabulary is very much influenced by Sanskrit. In the course of time, some Sanskrit expressions used in Telugu got so naturalised that people regarded them as pure Telugu words. Some Kannada and Tamil words were also taken into Telugu but they did not gain much currency.

With the advent of the Muslim rule, several Persian and Arabic words entered into the Telugu language. But they were confined to the spoken language and to the language of the judiciary and the executive. The influence of Persian and Arabic is discernible to a considerable extent in the languages spoken in Telangana due to its long association with the Muslim rule. There is also a great element of English words in the vocabulary of Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema because these regions were directly under the British rule for nearly a century and a half.

The evolution of Telugu can be traced through centuries in terms of its form as well as its function. Although culturally Telugu is close to its southern neighbours — Tamil and Kannada — genetically, it is closer to its northern neighbours — Gondi, Konda, Kui, Kuvi, Pengo and Manda. There is evidence to show that these languages were freely borrowed from Telugu even from the prehistoric period whereas borrowing between Telugu and Tamil and Kannada has been mostly during the historic period, i.e., post-5th century B.C.

*Language-wise population figures of 1991 Census have not yet been released by the Census Department.

It is possible to identify broadly four stages in the history of the Telugu language.

  1. B.C. 200 — A.D. 500
  2. A.D. 500–A.D.1100
  3. A.D. 1100–A.D.1400 and
  4. A.D. 1400–A.D.1900.

During the first phase, we only come across names of places and personal names of Telugu in Prakrit and Sanskrit inscriptions found in the Telugu country. Telugu was exposed to the influence of Prakrit as early as the 3rd century B.C. From this we know that the language of the people was Telugu, although the language of the rulers was different. The first complete Telugu inscription belongs to the Renati Cholas, found in Erragudipadu, Kamalapuram taluk of Cuddapah district and assigned to about A.D. 575. Telugu was exposed to the influence of Sanskrit about this period. It appears that literature also existed in Telugu about the same time, because we find literary style in the inscriptions some three centuries even before Nannaya’s (A.D. 1022) Mahabharatam. During the time of Nannaya, the popular language had considerably diverged from the literary language.

In the period A.D. 500–1100, the literary languages confined to the poetic works, flourished in the courts of kings and among scholars. Phonetic changes, which occurred in the popular language, are reflected in the literary language, although the two streams remained apart in grammar and vocabulary. During A.D. 1100–1400 the literary language got stylized and rigid, closing itself from the influence of contemporary spoken language. Ketana (13th century AD), a disciple of Tikkana prohibited the use of spoken words in the poetic works and quoted some spoken forms. During the period A.D. 1400–1900, many changes culminating in today’s form of Telugu took place.

The prose language of the 19th century, as can be seen from the `Kaifiyats’, shows the educated speech as base with occasional influence of literary language. We also notice the influence of Urdu language on Telugu before the spread of English education.

From the foregoing overview of the history of the Telugu language, one can see that what we now use as modern standard Telugu, had its beginnings in the spoken variety, right from the 10th century A.D. The language was progressively enriched by contact with Sanskrit, Prakrit, Urdu and English from early times.

Until the advent of the printing press and the school system of education, Telugu was broadly used in four areas: (1) inscriptions, (2) poetry, (3) folk literature, (4) common speech (social and perhaps official). The language of the inscriptions had always been based on the contemporary speech of the educated with an occasional admixture of literary and rustic expressions. Folk literature, which was in the form of songs, drew mainly on the speech of the common people among whom it circulated, basically rural in its character. Both in its appeal and form, the poetic language was confined to royal courts and the elite. Care was taken to keep it insulated from the speech of even the scholars and poets, who used it in other areas of communication. Because of this restriction on the medium, prose never emerged as a form of classical literature in Telugu. Even the sparse scientific writing on prosody, arithmetic, medicine and grammar was cast either in Telugu verse or in Sanskrit slokas. The emergence of popular literary forms like the satakas devotional songs and the yaksha gana necessitated extensive reliance on contemporary spoken language in their appeal and expressiveness. Early commentaries, historical accounts (like Rayavachakam), and the few prose works, which were written for instructional purposes in the first half of the 19th century, were all written in educated speech which was distinct from the language of the literary dialect. In 1853, Chinnayasuri, a Telugu pundit in the Presidency College, first experimented with a prose variety based on the classical poetic language in his book “Niti Chandrika”. In 1855, he published Bala Vyakaranamu, an excellent grammar of the poetic language, but it was intended for school study and as a guide to `Correct Writing’. These works had, to some extent, given support to traditional pundits, who upheld the Kavya bhasha as primary and the spoken language as its degenerate form. The influence of Chinnayasuri temporarily arrested the growth of creative prose by famous writers until Gurazada Appa Rao appeared on the scene and produced his social play Kanyasulkam in 1897 in a near modern language. The controversy that raged between the two schools, classical and modern subsided in 1919 with a victory for the classic writers to perpetuate the use of the so-called granthikam (or the poetic dialect) as the language of the text-book language and the medium of examination. However, teaching has all along been done only in the spoken variety of the teacher.

For about 90 years (1850–1940), Telugu prose had a stunted growth, although scholars like Kandukuri Viresalingam and Panuganti Lakshminarasimha Rao used a `liberalized poetic variety’ in their writings, which was neither fully classical nor fully modern.

Since the nineteen forties, Telugu prose style wriggled out of the clutches of the traditional pundits. The emergence of mass media of communication, like the radio, T.V., cinema, language, newspapers and new forms of writing, under the impact of nationalist movement reinforced the importance of the spoken word and various literary forms blossomed in modern language. By and large, the prosperous Krishna — Godavari delta became the breeding ground of many writers and scholars, and their spoken variety assumed several prose forms and slowly spread to other areas assimilating other dialects in its course. The language now used in all modern forms of literature and newspapers has a great degree of uniformity and acceptability, which lends it the status of a standard language. Now the nationalised text-books and those prescribed for Telugu language degree by universities are the only `sanctuaries’ of the poetic dialect.

The seminar sponsored by the State Government in 1964 at Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, resolved that only the modern language should be used for all subject (non-1st language) books written in Telugu and all 2nd language books. This resolution has been implemented in the case of subject text-books produced by the Telugu Akademi. Now all the universities in the State are allowing the use of modern Telugu as the examination medium and modern literature has been prescribed for study at the University level. In 1966, Telugu became the official language of the State and in 1974, correspondence in Telugu was made at the taluk level. This was gradually extended to Heads of Departments and Secretariat levels. In 1969, Telugu as the medium of instruction was introduced on a large scale in higher education.

Literature
Telugu literature is generally divided into six periods, viz.,

  1. the pre-Nannaya period (up to A.D. 1020),
  2. the Age of the Puranas (1020–1400),
  3. the Age of Srinatha (1400–1510),
  4. the Age of the Prabandhas (1510–1600),
  5. the Southern period (1600–1820), and
  6. the Modern Period (after 1820).

In the earliest period there were only inscriptions from A.D. 575 onwards. Nannaya’s (1022–1063) translation of the Sanskrit Mahabharata into Telugu is the piece of Telugu literature as yet discovered. The diction is so masterly that historians think that there must have been earlier works in Telugu. After the death of Nannaya, there was a kind of social and religious revolution in the Telugu country.

Virasaivism propagated bhakti towards Siva as the only means of attaining salvation. Tikkana (13th century) and Yerrana (14th century) continued the translation of the Mahabharata started by Nannaya. Yerrana was also a devotee of Siva. Quite a few poets continued writing in Telugu and we come to the age of Srinatha.

During this period, some Telugu poets translated Sanskrit poems and dramas, while others attempted original narrative poems. The popular Telugu literary form called the Prabandha, was evolved during this period. Srinatha (1365–1441) was the foremost poet, who popularised this style of composition (a story in verse having a tight metrical scheme). Srinatha’s, Sringara Naishadham is particularly well-known.

We may also refer to the Ramayana poets in this context. The earliest Ramayana in Telugu is generally known as the Ranganatha Ramayana, though authorised by the chief Gona Buddha Reddi. Then there were the great religious poets like Potana (1450–1510), Jakkana (second half of the 14th century) and Gaurana (first half of the 15th century).

The golden period of Telugu literature was the 16th and 17th centuries A.D., Krishnadevaraya’s Amuktamalayada is regarded as a Mahakavya. Peddana’s Manucharitra is another outstanding Mahakavya. Telugu literature flourished in the south in the Samsthanas like Madurai, Tanjavur etc., and that is why the age itself was called the `Southern Period’. We find a comparatively larger number of poets among the rulers, women and non-Brahmins who popularised the desi metres.

With the conquest of the Deccan by the Mughals in A.D.1687, there ensued a period of decadence (1750–1850) in literature. Then emerged a period of transition (1850–1910), following a long period of Renaissance. The Europeans like C.P.Brown played an important role in the development of Telugu language and literature. In common with the rest of India, Telugu literature of this period was increasingly influenced by the European literary forms like the novel, short story, prose, drama, belles-litters, etc.

The father of modern Telugu literature is Kandukuri Viresalingam Pantulu (1848–1919), who wrote a novel, Rajasekhara Charitamu, inspired by the Vicar of Wakefield. He was the first person in modern times to use literature to eradicate social evils. He was followed by Rayaprolu Subba Rao, Gurazada Appa Rao, Viswanatha Satyanarayana, Katuri Venkateswara Rao, Jashuva, Devulapalli Venkata Krishna Sastry, Sri Sri, Puttaparty Narayana Charyulu and others in the sphere of poetry. Viswanatha Satyanarayana had won the coveted Jnanapith Award. “Kanyasulkam” (Bride-Money), the first social play in Telugu by Gurazada Appa Rao was a thumping success. We also find the progressive movement, free verse movement and Digambara style finding expression in Telugu verse. The well-known modern Telugu novelists were Unnava Lakshminarayana (of Malapalli fame), Viswanatha Satyanarayana (Veyi Padagalu), Kutumba Rao and Buchchi Babu. Telugu is specially known for its daring experiments in the field of poetry and drama.

Urdu, another important language of the State and spoken by the Muslims is Indian in origin. Though many words in it found their way from the Arabic and Persian, it has always been true to the idiom of the western Hindi dialect. It was “the language of the Exalted Court” at Delhi in the Mughal period. It acquired the shortened name `Urdu’ and became the handmaid of the Persian culture in India.

The 1981 census recorded 41,69,179 Urdu-speaking persons in the State comprising 21,21,859 males and 20,47,320 females. Hyderabad City, the State’s Capital accounted for 35 per cent of the Urdu-speaking people in Hyderabad district, forming over 8 per cent of the population, and came next to Telugu. Guntur, Anantapur and Cuddapah districts also accounted for a sizeable number of Urdu-speaking people. In the Telangana region, the overall proportion of Urdu-speaking people is very high.

Hindi speaking people, numbering 13,83,792, (7,10,313 males and 6,73,479 females) and forming about three per cent of the population, held the third place. None of the remaining languages was spoken by even 2 per cent of the population. Thus Tamil, Kannada and Marathi account for still smaller proportions. These individual languages, however, account for a fairly substantial proportion of speakers in some districts. There were 6,45,463 Tamil; 4,84,330 Kannada, 4,31,352 Marathi and 2,36,420 Oriya speaking people in the State. People speaking Tamil are found concentrated in Chittoor district, which adjoins Tamil Nadu. They are also found to some extent in Nellore and Hyderabad districts. Kannada and Marathi speakers can be seen in districts like Anantapur and Kurnool, and Adilabad and Nizamabad respectively which have close proximity to the adjoining Kannada and Marathi areas of Karnataka and Maharashtra states.

Of the numerous other languages spoken in the State, the 1981 Census recorded 44,489 persons speaking Malayalam; 36,180 speaking Gujarati, 18,544 speaking Bengali, Punjabi -16,833, Sindhi – 9,521, Assami -248 and Kashmiri -121. Of the foreign languages spoken in the State, 414 speak Arabic and three, Tibetan.

The principal tribal languages spoken in the State are Banjara/Sugali/Lambadi ( 45,00,000) , Koya (1,58,097), Gondi (1,12,303), Savara (47,609), Jatapu (23,366), Kolami (13,395), Khondi/Kondh (11,890), Gadaba (11,291) and Donda (9,951).

Tirumala Tirupathi Temple – The abode of Lord Sri Venkateshwara

Lord Sri Venkateswara or Balaji is considered to be an incarnation of Lord Vishnu himself. It is believed that he came to reside on the southern bank of Swami Pushkarni, a tank which passes by Tirumala.
The seven hills around Tirumala-Tirupati are also known as Sapthagiri after the seven hoods of Sheshnag – the cosmic serpent. The temple of Sri Venkateswara is located on the seventh peak, Venkatadri on the southern banks of Sri Swami Pushkarini. Because of this reason, Lord Balaji has been named Venkateswara.

This is one of the few temples in India which allows people of other religious faiths to enter the sanctum sanctorum of the temple. The Sastras, Puranas, Sthala Mahatyams and Alwar hymns unequivocally declare that, in the Kali Yuga, one can attain mukti, only through the grace of Lord Sri Venkateswara. The temple has its origins in Vaishnavism, an ancient sect which advocates the principles of equality and love, and prohibits animal sacrifice.

Sri Venkatachala Mahatmya is referred to in several Puranas, of which the most important are the Varaha Purana and the Bhavishyottara Purana.

The printed work contains extracts from the Varaha Purana, Padma Purana, Garuda Purana, Brahmanda Purana, Markandeya Purana, Harivamsa, Vamana Purana, Brahma Purana, Brahmottara Purana, Aditya Purana, Skanda Purana and Bhavishyottara Purana. Most of these extracts describe the sanctity and antiquity of the hills around Tirumala and the numerous teerthams situated on them.

According one legend, as Saint Ramanuja born in 11th Century AD climbed the seven hills of Tirupati, Lord Srinivas- another name for Lord Venkateswara- appeared before him and gave him his blessings. And after that he is believed to have been blessed to live till the ripe age of 120 years to spread the gospel of Sri Venkateswara.

The legends taken from the Venkatachala Mahatmya and the Varaha Purana, pertaining to the manifestation of the Lord at Tirumala, are of particular interest.

According to the Varaha Purana, Adi Varaha manifested Himself on the western bank of the Swami Pushkarini, while Vishnu in the form of Venkateswara came to reside on the southern bank of the Swami Pushkarini.

One day, Rangadasa, a staunch devotee of Vishnu, in the course of his pilgrimage, joined Vaikhanasa Gopinatha, who was going up the Tirumala Hill for the daily worship of Lord Venkateswara. After bathing in the Swami Pushkarini, he beheld the lotus-eyed and blue-bodied Vishnu beneath a tamarind tree. Vishnu was exposed to the sun, wind and rain and was only protected by the extended wings of Garuda.

Rangadasa was astounded by the wonderful sight. He raised a rough wall of stones around the deity, and started supplying flowers faithfully to Gopinatha everyday for Vishnu’s worship.

One day, Rangadasa was distracted by a Gandharva king and his ladies. Consequently, he forgot to supply flowers to Gopinatha for Vishnu’s worship. The Lord then revealed Himself and told Rangadasa that He had been testing the latter’s continence, but Rangadasa had not been steadfast and had succumbed to temptation.

However, the Lord accepted and appreciated Rangadasa’s devoted service to Him till then, and blessed Rangadasa that he would be reborn as an affluent ruler of a province and would enjoy the earthly pleasures. He would continue to serve the Lord, construct a beautiful temple with a vimana and high surrounding walls, and thereby earn eternal glory.

Rangadasa was reborn as Tondaman, the son of the royal couple, Suvira and Nandini. Tondaman enjoyed a pleasurable life as a young man. One day, he set out on a hunting expedition on the Tirumala Hill, and with the help of a forester, saw Vishnu under the tamarind tree. Tondaman returned home, deeply affected by the vision of Vishnu.

Tondaman later inherited his father’s kingdom, Tondamandalam. In accordance with the directions given by Adi Varaha to a forester, Tondaman constructed a prakaram and dvara gopura, and arranged for regular worship of the Lord (according to Vaikhanasa Agama).

In the Kali Yuga, Akasaraja came to rule over Tondamandalam. His daughter Padmavathi was married to Venkateswara. The marriage, officiated by Brahma, was celebrated with great pomp and splendor.

It is popular among devotees to offer their hair as sacrifice. They also drop their offerings in the form of money, gold, silver or anything they wish in the holy hundi. According to Hindu mythology, all the offerings to Lord Venkateswara count to repay the loan taken by him from Kubera for his marriage expenses which will be repaid completely by the end of Kaliyuga.

Among devotees, it is also believed that the Lord here is Swayambhu, meaning that the statue was naturally formed and the Vimana (roof) of the sanctum sanctorum and the shrine are inseparable.

The history of the temple dates back to as far as 9th Century A.D, when Pallavas, the rulers of Kancheepuram, patronized this shrine. But it was not until the time of Vijayanagara dynasty in 15th Century AD that the temple got recognition, and the contributions started pouring in.

All the great dynasties of rulers of the southern peninsula have paid homage to Lord Sri Venkateswara in this ancient shrine. The Pallavas of Kancheepuram (9th century AD), the Cholas of Thanjavur (a century later), the Pandyas of Madurai, and the kings and chieftains of Vijayanagar (14th – 15th century AD) were devotees of the Lord and they competed with one another in endowing the temple with rich offerings and contributions.

It was during the rule of the Vijayanagar dynasty that the contributions to the temple increased. Sri Krishnadevaraya had statues of himself and his consorts installed at the portals of the temple, and these statues can be seen to this day. There is also a statue of Venkatapati Raya in the main temple.

After the decline of the Vijayanagar dynasty, nobles and chieftains from all parts of the country continued to pay their homage and offer gifts to the temple. The Maratha general, Raghoji Bhonsle, visited the temple and set up a permanent endowment for the conduct of worship in the temple. He also presented valuable jewels to the Lord, including a large emerald which is still preserved in a box named after the General. Among the later rulers who have endowed large amounts are the rulers of Mysore and Gadwal.

After the fall of the Hindu kingdoms, the Muslim rulers of Karnataka and then the Britishers took over, and many of the temples came under their supervisory and protective control.

In 1843 AD, the East India Company divested itself of the direct management of non-Christian places of worship and native religious institutions. The administration of the shrine of Sri Venkateswara and a number of estates were then entrusted to Sri Seva Dossji of the Hatiramji Mutt at Tirumala, and the temple remained under the administration of the Mahants for nearly a century, till 1933 AD.

In 1933, the Madras Legislature passed a special act, which empowered the Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams(TTD) Committee to control and administer a fixed group of temples in the Tirumala-Tirupati area, through a Commissioner appointed by the Government of Madras.

In 1951, the Act of 1933 was replaced by an enactment whereby the administration of TTD was entrusted to a Board of Trustees, and an Executive Officer was appointed by the Government .

The provisions of the Act of 1951 were retained by Charitable and Religious Endowments Act, 1966.

There is ample literary and epigraphic testimony to the antiquity of the temple of Lord Sri Venkateswara.

History of Tirupati Balaji

Some extracts from the Varaha Purana:
The Rishis headed by Kasyapa began to perform a sacrifice (yaga) on the banks of the Ganges. Sage Narada visited them at that time and asked them to tell him why they were performing the sacrifice and who would be pleased by it.

Not being able to answer the question the Rishis approached Sage Bhrigu.To reach a solution after a direct ascertainment of reality, Sage Bhrigu first went to Satyaloka (the abode of Lord Brahma).

There, he found Brahma reciting the four Vedas with his four heads in praise of Lord Narayana and attended upon by Sarasvati and not taking notice of Bhrigu offering obeisance. Concluding that Brahma was unfit for worship, Bhrigu left Brahmaloka for Kailasa.

At Kailasa, Bhrigu found Lord Siva spending his time pleasantly with Parvati and not noticing the Sage Bhrigu. Parvati drew the attention of Siva to the presence of the sage.

Lord Siva became furious at the intrusion of Bhrigu and tried to destroy him. The sage cursed and left for Vaikuntham.

The angry sage went to Sri Vaikuntham. Srimannarayana was reposing at that time on Adisesha with Sri Mahalakshmi at His feet in service. Finding that Srimannarayana also did not notice him, the sage was infuriated and he kicked the Lord on His chest, the place where Mahalakshmi resides.

At once the Lord hastened to make apologies to the angry Sage and pressed his feet to allay the pain caused to the leg. In doing so the Lord removed the eye in the foot of the Sage, which gave him power as to defy the Devas. The Sage thereupon decided that Sri MahaVishnu was the most Supreme of the Trimurtis and told the Rishis the same.They thereupon decided that Sri MahaVishnu was the fruit of the Yaga and sacrifice was offered to Him (Vishnu).

At the commencement of the present Sveta Varaha Kalpa, the whole Universe was filled with water and the earth was immersed in it. Lord Vishnu took to form of a White Boar and dived into the water to lift the earth. He slew the demon Hiranyaksha who caused obstruction to him and rescued the earth.

Brahma and the other Devas extolled Sri Varaha at the time with the chanting of the Vedas and showered flowers on him for saving the Earth. Lord Vishnu decided to stay on Earth in the form of the White Boar for some time, to punish the wicked and protect the virtuous. This place thenceforward came to be known as Varaha Kshetra and Varaha Kalpa began from that time.

After the departure of Mahalakshmi, Lord Vishnu left Vaikuntha in a forlorn condition and took his abode in an ant-hill on the Venkata Hill under a tamarind tree beside a Pushkarini.

Brahma and Mahesvara, taking pity on the condition of Vishnu, made up their mind to assume the forms of a cow and its calf to serve him.

The Sun God informed Mahalakshmi of this and requested her to sell the cow and calf to the king of the Chola country assuming the form of a cowherdess.

The king of the Chola country bought the cow and its calf and sent them to graze on the Venkata Hill along with his herd of cattle. Discovering Lord Vishnu in the ant-hill, the cow everyday emptied her under over the ant-hill and thus fed the Lord.

Finding that the cow did not yield any milk, the Chola Queen chastised the cowherd severely.

To find out the cause of the absence of milk, the cowherd followed the cow and hid himself in a bush and discovered the cow emptying her under over the ant-hill.

Getting wild over the conduct of the cow, the cowherd aimed a blow with his axe on the head of the cow. But the God rose from the ant-hill to receive the blow and save the cow.

When the cowherd saw the Lord bleed at the blow of his axe he fell down and died.

On the death of the cowherd, the cow returned bellowing to the presence of the Chola King with blood stains over her body. To find out the cause of the terror of the cow the Chola King followed her to the scene of the incident.

Near an ant-hill, the King found the cowherd lying dead on the ground. While he stood wondering how it had happened, the Lord rose from the ant-hill and cursed the king to become an Asure from the fault of his servant. Entreated by the king who pleaded innocence, the Lord blessed him by saying that His curse would end when He was adorned with the Kireetam presented by Akasa Raja at the time of His marriage with Sri Padmavati.

Thereafter Srinivasa decided to stay in this Varaha Kshetra. He therefore requested Sri Varahaswami to grant Him a site for His stay. His request being readily granted, Srinivasa ordained that a pilgrimage to His shrine would not be complete unless it is preceded by a bath in the Pushkarini and Darsan of Sri VarahaSwami, and that Puja and Naivedyam should be offered to Sri Varaha first.

Yasoda brought up Sri Krishna, the son of Devaki, in his early years. Yasoda was not blessed to witness the marriage of Sri Krishna with Rukmini and she felt very sad. Sri Krishna promised to fulfil her desire in her next birth as Vakuladevi in his next Avatara as Srinivasa. This Vakuladevi was sent to serve Srinivasa by Lord Varahasvami, on whom she was attending till Srinivasa came to Venkatachala.

Sometime after, a King named Akasa Raja who belonged to the Lunar race was ruling over Thondamandalam. He had a brother named Thondaman. Akasa Raja had no issue for a long time and so he wanted to perform a sacrifice for obtaining an offspring. While he was himself ploughing and ground for sacrifice, his plough turned up a lotus in the ground. On examining the lotus, the King found a female child in it.

The king was happy to find a child even before he performed a sacrifice and carried it to his place and gave it to his Queen to tend it. At that time he heard an aerial voice which said “O King, tend it as your child and fortune will befall you”. As she was found in a lotus, the king named her Padmavati.

In course of time Princess Padmavati grew up into a beautiful maiden and was attended by a host of maids. One day while she was spending her time in a garden picking flowers with her maids, Saint Narada approached her. Assuring her that he was her well-wisher, he asked her to show him her palm to read her future. He foretold that she was destined to be the spouse of Lord Vishnu himself.

At this time Lord Srinivasa, who went for hunting chased a wild elephant in the forests surrounding the hills. In the pursuit, Srinivasa was led into a garden, where Princess Padmavati and her maids were picking flowers.The sight of the elephant frightened them and their Princess.

But the Elephant immediately turned round and saluted the Lord and disappeared in the forest.Lord Srinivasa came on horse back and saw the frightened maidens and he was accosted by them with queries.

Lord Srinivasa had explained them about his birth and parentage. He enquired them about their princess and her parentage and birth.

When he was informed that the Princess was Padmavati (lotus-Born) the foster Daughter of Akasaraja, he loved her and made advances to the Princess. He was repulsed with stones by the maids and he urgently returned to the hills leaving the horse, which fell on the ground.

Vakuladevi, as usual, brought dinner to Srinivasa comprising various delicious dishes. But she found him lying on his bed love-sick. She enquired the cause of his sickness. The Lord informed her that unless he secured Princess Padmavati, he would not be well. Vakuladevi then asked him to tell her all about the Princess, who she was, and how he came to love her. The Lord then narrated the story of her (Padmavati’s) previous birth and his promise to wed her.

In olden times Lakshmi was staying as Vedavati in a Rishi Asrama in the forests. At that time Ravana, the lord of Lanka came there and tried to tempt her. Vedavati grew angry and cursed him that she would bring about his death.

To fulfil her words, Vedavati entered into the fire but the fire-god rescued her. He took Vedavati to his house and entrusted her to his wife to take care of her.

When Ravana was about to carry away Sita from Panchavati in the absence of Rama and Lakshmana, the Fire-God appeared on the scene and offered Vedavati to Ravana as the real Sita who was kept with him by Rama to evade Ravana.

Ravana took Vedavati to Lanka thinking she was the real Sita, while Agni(Fire-God) took Sita to his house and asked his wife Swahadevi to look after her.

After the destruction of Ravana, Vedavati entered the fires when rejected by Rama. Then the Fire-God offered the real Sita to Rama. Rama then questioned her as to who the other lady by her side was.

Sita informed Rama that she was Vedavati who suffered all the tortures for her sake for ten months in Lanka and requested Rama to accept her also as his spouse. But Rama declined her request saying that he was wedded to policy of having only one wife during his life time, and he promised to wed her in her next birth as Padmavati, born as the daughter of Akasaraja when he will take the form of Srinivasa.

There upon Vakuladevi thought that Srinivasa would not be happy unless he married Padmavati and she offered to go to Akasaraja and his queen and arrange for the marriage. On the way she met the maid-servants of Padmavati returning from a Siva Temple. She learnt from them about Padmavathi’s love-sickness and went to the queen along with them.

Akasaraja and his queen Dharanidevi became anxious about the health of their daughter. They learnt about Padmavati’s love for Srinivasa of Venkata Hill. Akasaraja consulted Brihaspati about the propriety of the marriage and was informed that the marriage was in the best interests.

After the departure of Vakuladevi Srinivasa could not rest in peace. He doubted her success in the mission. He therefore assumed the form of a Yerukula-woman and entered the streets of the capital telling fortunes. Padmavati’s maids saw her and invited her to the presence of their queen.

The maid-servants went and informed the queen that the fortune-teller was hesitating to come into the palace without an invitation from the queen.

The queen came out herself and invited the fortune-teller into the palace.The fortune-teller was taken to the presence of Princess Padmavati.

The fortune-teller saw the palm of the Princess and told the queen about the cause of Padmavati’s indisposition and advised to give her in marriage to Lord Srinivasa. She also told the queen that a lady would approach her shortly to formally request Padmavati’s hand in marriage on behalf of Srinivasa.

After the departure of the fortune-teller, Vakuladevi went to the queen along with the maids and informed her that she came from Srinivasa to request the hand of Padmavati in marriage for him.

Having consulted Brihaspati and heard from his queen about the prediction of the fortune-teller and arrival of the messenger, from Srinivasa, Akasaraja decided to bestow his daughter on Srinivasa and he called the palace purohits to fix a Muhurtam for the marriage.

Akasaraja informed his Ministers and other Officials of his intention. Immediately a letter was drafted for being sent to Srinivasa requesting him to come and marry the Princess.

Akasaraja entrusted the letter to Sukamahamunin for being delivered to Srinivasa. **** went to Venkata Hill with Vakulamalikadevi. He presented the Patrika to Lord Srinivasa, who felt pleased and sent his garland through him for Padmavati.

Immediately Lord Srinivasa called for a conference of the Gods to win their consent for His marriage with Princess Padmavati.

To meet the expenses of the marriage, Kubera lent money to the Lord.

Lord Srinivasa started for the residence of Akasaraja with his consorts and Brahma and Siva and his vehicle Garutman.

At the entrance the Lord was received by Akasaraja with all honours and was taken in procession on a mounted elephant to the palace for the marriage.

In the presence of all the Devas, Lord Srinivasa took the hand of the Princess Padmavati and wedded her and thus blessed Akasaraja.

Contest between Adisesha and Vayudeva

During the Dwaparayuga, Vayudeva (the Wind God) went to Vaikuntam to pay his obeisance to Lord Sri Vishnu. The Lord was reclining in the company of Sri Lakshmi. The doorway was guarded by Adisesha. Vayudeva was incensed when Adisesha prevented him from entering Sri Vishnu’s mansion. Adisesha and Vayudeva began to fight with each other.

When Lord Vishnu intervened, each was boasting of his superior valour and supreme might. To test who was stronger, the Lord suggested that Adisesha encircle the Ananda hill, an off-shoot of the Meru mountain on its northern side, and that Vayudeva blow hard to try and dislodge the Ananda hill from Adisesha’s hold. The contest waxed furiously, and as the World trembled, Brahma, Indra and the other Divine Beings requested Adisesha to yield victory to Vayudeva for the welfare of the world.

Obliging them, Adisesha released his hold on the hill. As a result, Adisesha and the Ananda hill were blown away to the banks of the river Swarnamukhi. Adisesha was dejected by his defeat. Lord Brahma and the others appealed to him by saying that he would be merged with the hill Venkatadri and Vishnu would reside on him. Adisesha then metamorphosed into the vast Seshadri, with his hood manifesting itself as Venkatadri sustaining Sri Venkateswara, his middle as Ahobila supporting Lord Narasimha, and his tail as Srisailam bearing Lord Mallikarjuna (Lord Siva).

Restoration of the Earth by Adi Varaha

During the eight thousand yugas (the equivalent of a day and night for Brahma, the Creator), there was a raging fire, and everything on Earth was reduced to ashes. Man had to forsake the Earth and seek refuge in Janaloka.

At the approach of night (of Brahma), Vayu, the Wind God, blew furiously. Huge clouds were formed, there was torrential rain, and it resulted in Pralaya Kalpa (the Great Deluge). The Earth sank into the Patala loka, and remained in that state for a thousand years (during a part of that night of Brahma).

Sri Maha Vishnu, wanted to rescue the Earth. He assumed the form of Adi Varaha and proceeded to Pataloka. He fought a fierce duel with Hiranyaksa and killed him. He then slashed the water and brought up the Earth on his tusks.

Brahma, the Devas and the sages extolled Adi Varaha’s virtues, by chanting the Vedic mantras. They prayed to Him to re-establish the Earth as before. Adi Varaha obliged them, and called upon Brahma to recreate the world. He expressed his desire to reside on the Earth to protect its people. He commanded his vehicle, Garuda to fetch Kridachala (an extensive natural hill with lofty peaks, embedded with gold and precious stones, and which resembled Adisesha in shape) from Vaikuntam.

Garuda brought Kridachala and deposited it on a sacred spot (to the East of Swami Pushkarini) chosen by Adi Varaha. Adi Varaha stood within the divine vimana of Kridachala, which shone with many gem-studded gopuras.

Brahma and the other holy personages requested the fearsome-looking Adi Varaha to assume a tranquil and composed look, and rest on the hill to protect men and grant boons to people unable to reach God through Dhyana Yoga (meditation) and Karma Yoga (doing one’s own duty).

Adi Varaha appeared with four arms and a white face. He was adorned with jewels and accompanied by Bhu Devi. He resolved to stay at Venkatadri, under a divya vimana, to grant the prayers of men.

Durga Malleswara Temple–Vijayawada

Historically the Malleswara temple goes back to the period of the Tribhuvana Malla, a Chalukyan ruler of the 10th century.
The Malleswara temple enshrines a Shivalingam believed to have been held in worship by the sage Agastya. Legend also has it that this temple was established by the Pandava prince Yuddhishtra. It is believed that the Lakshmi Narasimha temple at the foothills of Mangalagiri nearby was also built by Yuddhishtra the Pandava prince, and that the Vijayeswara temple was founded by Arjuna.

It is believed that Agastya worshipped Shiva at this temple as Jayasena, while Arjuna worshipped him as Malleswara.

The Indrakila hill in Vijayawada is said to be associated with the legend of Arjuna (Vijaya) obtaining the Pasupataastram from Shiva. The Vijayeswara temple has this and many other such legends illustrated in stone sculpture.

The Kanakadurga temple is a well visited temple in Vijayawada enshrining the Chandi or the Durga aspect of Shakti. The spiritual leader Aadi Sankara is believed to have visited this shrine and installed a Sree Chakra.

The deity in the Kanaka Durga temple is regarded as swayambhu, or self-manifested. The deity depicts the manifestation of Chandi (Durga) as the destroyer of the demon Durgama. This deity is said to have been worshiped by Agastya, Markandeya and the Pandavas. This is a popular temple, which is especially crowded on Fridays.

Kanakadurga and Vijayawada are synonymous with each other. SHE is the presiding deity of Vijayawada and the Kanakadurga shrine on the Indrakila hill beckons visitors from far and wide. Every visitor to Vijayawada, however, busy he may be, never goes back without paying obeisance to this goddess.

Srikalahasti

Srikalahasti is a place of Hindu pilgrimage with a temple here dedicated to Lord Shiva. Located at 36 km from Tirupati, 578km from Hyderabad and 326 km from Vijayawada, Srikalahasti is a town in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh.

The temple enshrines one of the five prominent Lingas. The presiding deities of Srikalahasti temple are Srikalahastiswara and his consort Gnanaprasunambika. This temple is situated between two steep hills on the banks of river Swarnamukhi. Chola kings built the main temple. The great Chola king Kuluthungal constructed the Caligopuram in 11th century A.D. Veeranarashimha Yadavaraya built the present Prakara (compound wall) and the four Gopurarns in 12th century AD. Krishnadevaraya built 100 pillared Mandapa in 1516 A. D. According to the inscriptions, the temple was built at the base of the Kailasagiri by great Pallava kings and later by Tondaman Chakravarthi (Pandyam Kings).
The Shiva Linga of Srikalahasti is one of the five supreme Lingas representing five great elements, which are installed in the five great Kshetras. The Kshetras are dedicated to five elements namely – Water, Fire, Ether, Air and Earth. Here Lord Shiva is worshipped in the form of Vayu Linga (The wind God). Even today the flame placed in Garbhagraha inside the temple flickers indicating the presence of the wind while there is no entry of wind to disturb the flame. The air is just sufficient to breathe in. This according to a belief is the existence of Shiva in the temple.

There is a legend that a Spider (Sri) built the web over it, a snake (Kala), placed a gem on the Linga and an elephant (Hasti) washed the Linga with water from its trunk, had offered prayers in their devotion and worshipped the Linga. The marks that correlate the legend are still visible on the Linga, which is a Swayambhu (Natural). Sri,Kala and Hasti put togather becomes the name of this temple Srikalahasti.

There is another legend of sacrifice and devotion of a well-known, Saint, Kannappa. He was once a hunter and a great devotee of Lord Shiva. He used to offer part of his hunt to Shiva everyday. One day while he was offering the hunt, both eyes of the deity appeared. One of the eyes of the deity was profusely bleeding. In the state of helplessness to remedy the deity, he pulled out his own eye in total devotion and fixed it on the deity’s eye. While the bleeding stopped in one, the other eye of the deity started bleeding. Kannappa’s endless devotion made him pull out his second eye also and offered to the deity. The diety pleased with the depth of his devotion granted him Moksha (Salvation).

It is believed that the goddess with divine powers here has cured women who were possessed by evil spirits. The main festival in this temple is Mahashivratri, which lasts for 10 days in the month of February and March. This temple has a reference in the Skandapurana where Arjun is said to have worshipped Srikalahastiswara during his Theerth Yatra, (pilgrimage).

Bhadrachalam

A sacred place that attracts lakhs of devotees from all over the world , is the abode of lord Rama ( The seventh incarnation of SriMahavishnu ). This hill place which is encircled by holi river Godavari flowing towards southern direction called the famous shrine Bhadrachalam – The name derived from Bhadragiri ( Mountain of Bhadra – a boon child of Meru and Menaka ). Though not , the history of this shrine stands for the significance of Ramayana Era , the coherent hill place existed in ” Dandakaranya ” Of Ramayana period where Rama with his consort Sita and brother Laxmana had spent their vanavasa – and vicinity of the temple had its incongruous addmixture of another story which depicts the exigency of ” Sri Mahavishnu ” to manifest himself as Rama and shuffled again to the mortal coil – long after Ramavatara was to fulfill his promise to his Bhakta Bhadra ( a mountain king ) , a sage who had been continuing the frightened penance to get grace of Lord Rama.
The history depicts that the need emerged the incarnation of Vykuntha Rama was that to fulfill a long desire of his ardent devotee Bhadra . The Saint Bhadra – Bhadra performed penance at the bank of river Godavari in this ” Dandakaranya ” to get grace of lord Rama and in countenance of his beloved God – The exulted “Rishi” implored Rama to be seated on his head ,but Rama who was in search of his consort Sita gave promise to his Bhakta that his desire would be fulfilled on his way back , after finding Sita and accomplishing the process of punishing the wicked Ravana and establish ‘Dharma’ . Thus the sage had been in continuation of the frightened penance as Rama could not accomplish the promise in Ramavatara . Then Sri Mahavishnu manifested himself as Vykuntha Rama and rushed to his devotee Bhadra , signaling hisarrival by blowing ‘Shanku’,accompanied by his consort Sita and brother Laxmana , resembling that of ‘Gajendra Moksham ‘ – Thus , the moorthies of Rama ( having four hands ) – Shanku on the right , Chakra at his left and Dhanurbhana ( Bow and Arrow in the rest two hands ) , Sita had condescended on the left lap of Rama and brother ( at Rama’s left ) are existed . And the hill place where the Deities were seated on , was the head place of Bhadra – achalam ( hill ) ,thus this shrine was transformed into Bhadrachalam

The idols of Vykuntha Rama , Laxmana and Sita were found by Pokala Dhammakka. Pokala Dhammakka, an ardent devotee of Rama lived in 17th century was inhabitant of Bhadrireddypalem , a mile away from this holi place .On ne fine night , she had darshan of Rama in her dream and was told by lord Rama that ” the saints and sages are worshiping my embodied moorthy settled on Bhadragiri ” and asked her to trace them , perform pooja and attain salvation . On the very next day morning she started searching for the idols – peeped into an ant-hill and found the idols hidden in it . She poured hundreds of pots of Godavari water on the ant-hill which tardily dissolved and gave way to appear the hidden Deities .Since then , she used to perform pooja daily and offer ‘nivedyan’ with fruits fallen from near palmyra tree and constructed a mandapam with the help of local villagers .

Bhakta Ramadas and construction of temple

Bhadrachalarama temple was constructed by Kancharla Gopanna popularly known as Bhakta Ramadas in the year 1630 A.D. Kancharla gopanna popularly known as ” Bhakta Ramdas ” a fervent devotee of Rama was born to Linganna Murthy and Kamamba in Nelakondapalli village of Khammamett Taluk in 17th century (1630 AD ) .He was nephew of Akkannna , the administrative head in the court of Nawab Abul Hussan shah known as ‘ Taneshah ‘ of Golkonda and was appointed by him as Tahsildar of ‘ Palvoncha Paragana ‘ . Thus he was discharging his official duties earnestly and collecting revenues due to Nawabs in continuation of daily preaches – Chanting of ‘Ramanama’ and the feeding the poor at his house . Ramadasa who heard the news that the villagers of palvoncha paragana were proceeding to witness Jatara at Bhadrachalam , He too out of curiosity visited Bhadrachalam . He found the deities in an amazing appearance , Ramadas then asked the villagers to contribute liberally for the construction of the temple .The villagers in response appealed him to spend the revenue collections for the construction of the temple with a promise to repay the amount after harvesting the crops . As such Ramadas constructed the temple with an amount of Rs 6 Lakhs collected from the land revenues with out the permission of the Nizam Nawab .

When temple reached to nearing completion , he had a problem of fixing ‘Sudarshana Chakra’ at the crest of the main temple . He deeply distressed and fell into sleep . On the same night , Rama in his dream asked him to have a holi dip in river Godavari where he will find that – accordingly . On the next day morning Gopanna did so and found holi Sudarshana Chakra in the river with out much difficulty . He presumed that Sudarshana Chakra itself was shaped up with the divine power of his beloved God Rama. Soon after the construction ,his miseries started .He was dismissed from service for mis-utilisation of revenue for constructing the temple and was kept in jail for 12 long years in Golkonda Fort and was tortured . Unable to withstand the miseries , Ramadas implored Rama to relieve him by singing many praising and emotional songs which got popularised from the stanzas of ‘Dasaradhi Sathakam ‘ and ‘Keertanas’ of Bhakta Ramadasa .

The Nizam Nawab Tanishah , the then ruler of Nizam’s territory became a devotee of Rama who realised the devotion spirit of Ramadas after his improsionment.And tookover the charge of temple administritation.This resembles the communal harmony amongst the Hindus and Muslims. The Nizam Nawab ,Tanishah realised Ramadas’s devotional spirit and dedication towards Rama , when Rama and Laxmana repaid 6 lakh Mohurs exposing themselves as Ramoji and Laxmoji , the servants of Bhakta Ramadas to get release of their devotee from the imprisonment . Thanisha gave voucher to these divine looking persons who approached him at his house during late night . Then they kept the voucher under the pillow of Gopanna where he was jailed . Tanishah who woke up on the very next day morning realised that those divine looking persons were none other than Rama and Laxman and made arrangements to get release of Gopanna and prayed to forgive him by placing all the Gold Mohurs received last night at the feet of Gopanna . But , he refused to take back those mohurs except two as a mark of divine significance ( Those two can still be seen kept in Bhadrachala Sri Sita Ramachandra Swamy vaari Devasthanam) .

Influenced by the majesty of Lord Rama , Golkonda Ruler Tanishah earmarked the income derived from the said Palwoncha paragana which came to Rs 20,000 and odd for the maintainance of the temple which was continued during Nizam’s reign and offering Pearls ( Mutyala Talambralu ) on the occassion of kalyana mahotsavam(Sri Rama Navami) to Deities on an elephant through a specially sent messenger . That procedure of sending pearls to the Deities is still followed by present state Government and continued to offer during Sri Rama Navami Festival ( Kalyana mahotsavam ) .

Tumu Narsimha Dasa,Tahasildar of Palwoncha paragana,along with his associate Varada Ramadasa came here from Guntur and took over charge of Bhadrachalarama temple after Ramadas made inscripted the performance of Nitya Poojas and sevas right from early morning “Suprabhata Seva” till night “Pavalimpu Seva” before closure of the temple as “Silaasaasanaalu” on these two pillars.This inscription gave details of daily dittam and daily rituals also.

PARNASHALA :

Though not this famous shrine Bhadrachalam stands for the significance of Ramayana Era , the coherent hill place is existed in Dhandakaranya of Ramanayana period , where Rama had spent his vanavasa . During vanavasa Rama with his concert Sita , Brother Laxmana had constructed a hermitage at Parnashala ,that sacred place is situated near Bhadrachalam about 25 Kms . The picturesque display of some scenes of vanavasa could be seen at Parnashala . The foot prints of Sita devi and Mosaic of Surpanaka in the guise of golden deer and Ravana in the guise of Sanyasi for Bhikshatana and the vicinity of the temple – Sita Vaagu , where she had bathed and collected the turmeric and Kunkum from near by stones and the marks of her saree on the rock near Sita Vaagu are the visiting places for the piligrims . As Ravana kidnapped Sita, the diety at Parnashala is called Sokarama. The tracks of the chariot of Ravana while kidnapping sita is seen on the mountain on the other side of the river bank at Parnashala temple. This stands for the mythological significance of the history.

JATTAYU PAAKA ( YETAPAKA) :

This Place is situated from 2Kms away from Bhadrachalam. According to Mythological story the bird Jattayuvu , a devotee of Rama had obstructed Ravana while he was proceeding on the chariot after kidnapping Sita. In the fearsful battle between Ravana and Jataayuvu , heavily injured bird had waited at this place in search of Sita. And a wing of this bird fell at Rekhapalli ,about 55 Kms from here, in V.R. Puram Mandal.

DUMMUGUDEM :

Here Rama is called the Atmarama. The story reveals that Rama killed 14000 demons headed by Kharadeoshana. As the village was said to be built upon the ashes of these demons, the place is named after as Dummugudem.

GUNDALA :

It is a place 5 Kms away from sacred town Bhadrachalam , where a springs of hot water could be traced on the river bank when we dug pit at any place in this area . It is beleived that the divine trios(Brahma Vishnu Maheswara) had there dips in winter season according to Brahma Purana.

SRI RAMA GIRI:

This place is situated on the bank in the down stream of river Godavari, about 55 Kms from here. The deity of Yoga Rama Temple is on a hill is named as Ramagiri.

Simhachalam

Simhachalam 16 kms. away from Vishakhpatmam, it is Eleventh Century old temple dedicated to Lord Varaha narasimha. Moreover it is also called “Simhagiri” or “Lion’s Hill” . It is lies in the northern direction of Visakhapatnam, which is a District Headquarters of Andhra. It has been hailed as the most famous and the best sculptured shrine. It has Sri Varahalakshmi Narasimha Swamy as the presiding deity. Simhachalam temple is known as the second richest temple (after Tirupati) for earning a revenue.
This temple combines the Orissan and Chalukyan features of temple construction, and it attracts scores of pilgrims from both Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.
The foundation of the temple is related to the well-known story of the demon-king Hiranyakashipu and his son, Prahalada, who was also a great devotee of Lord Vishnu. Hiranyakashipu in order to punish Prahalada (who was firm in his devotion to Lord Vishnu) threw his son into the sea and placed the Simhachalam hill over his head to crush him completely. Lord Vishnu protected His devotee by tilting the hill for Prahalada to escape. Later, Lord Vishnu incarnated as Narasimha (half-man, half-lion) and killed Hiranyakashipu. It is believed by some that the shrine at Simhachalam was established by Prahalada in order to worship Lord Vishnu in his Narasimha avatara (manifestation).

Kulottunga Chola I of Tamilnadu, made endowments to this temple, as evidenced from inscriptions dating back to the year 1087. The Vengi Chalukyas of Andhra Pradesh renovated the original shrine in the 11th century. Much of the structure as it stands to day is the result of renovation by Narasimha I, of the Eastern Ganga dynasty, in the second quarter of the 13th century CE. Krishna Deva Raya, the Vijayanagar monarch visited this temple in the year 1516, as seen from inscriptions here. There are as many as 525 inscriptions in this temple. Since Simhachalam was for sometime under Vijayanagar empire, its influence is also felt on this temple. Krishna Devaraya captured Udayagiri (Nellore district) in 1541 A.D. and Kondavidu (guntur district in 1515 A. D. from Prataparudra Gajapathi of Orissa. In the following year he advanced as far as Simhachalam and erected a pillar of victory.

The Simhachalam temple faces the West unlike so many others which face the East. An east-facing entrance, according to religious belief, brings prosperity while the west – facing one brings victory. With its hilly backdrop covered with verdant vegetation, it looks resplendently beautiful, with a five-tier Rajagopuram and a white coloured sikara rising over the sanctum sanctorum. A flight of steps leads to the northern gateway, an elaborately decorated three-tier gopura, which gives access to the visitors to the side entrance of the ardha mantapa.

The icon, a combination of Varaha and Narasimha is always anointed with sandal paste in order to mitigate its `ugra’. It is believed that the presiding deity was originally Shiva, but He was replaced by the incarnation of Vishnu after the Vaishnavite apostle, Shri Ramanuja visited the place in the 11th century.
He gives “nijaroopa darshan” (holy appearance in true form) for only 12 hours in a year and on all the remaining 364 days and 12 hours, the Lord is covered with sandalwood paste. The original shape of the deity in the tribhanga posture has two hands with the head of a lion on a human torso. The real shape of the deity can can be viewed only during Chandanotsavam Festival (March-April).

Devout pilgrims have their heads tonsured as a sort of offering to the Lord.

One can reach Simhachalam either by train, which goes up to Simhachalam Railway Station, or more easily by bus from Visakhapatnam. Visakhapatnam is an important junction in the Madras to Calcutta line, and is also connected by air from Hyderabad.

Draksharamam

Draksharamam is located 28 Km from Kakinada,50 Km from Rajahmundry and 25 Km from Amalapuram. Throughout the length and breadth of the Sacred “Mother India”, there are many pilgrim centers. From amongst them “Draksharama” is the one in the Southern India on the Eastern Bank of the River Godavari. It is colloquially known as Draksharama carrying the implied meaning as “Draksharama” meaning the Abode of Daksha Prajapathi – the Father-in-law of Lord Siva and the beloved Father of ‘Sati’ the spiritual spouse of Lord Siva.
The history of the Sacred Pilgrimage is exhaustively dealt within the ‘Skanda Purana’ of Sri Vyasa. To give a brief narration of the same the story goes thus

Once Daksha Prajapathi decided to perform a Yaga. In pursuance of the same, he had been to Kailasa to invite Gods and Goddesses to sanctify his ‘Yazna’ and accept his hospitality. But when he had been there, Lord Siva was in his Court immersed in his spiritual splendour. But Daksha Prajapathi out of his ego of being the father-in-law of Lord Siva, mistook the Lord’s trance as indifference towards him. So, being put out at the difference of his Son-in-law he came back without inviting the Lord and the Lady to his sacrifice.

Sati in her womanish nature requested Siva to permit her to attend, the sacrifice at her parental home, even uninvited and have the pleasure of the performance and the association of her kith and kin. But Siva explained her the tragic implications that she might have to face at her parental house and let her to at her own wish. But, when she actually stepped into her parental home, none greeted her or even just asked her a mutual exchange of her well-being.

Then Sathi was put out with the humiliation she had to face amidst her own blood and then and there, decided to give up her body instead of facing her beloved husband with a fallen face. So, she gave up her body then and there and fell down dead. Siva having come to know of the tragic end, sent his son ‘Veerabhadra’ to boot down the ego of Daksha.

Siva in his pangs of separation with Sati came down to her dead body and shoultered the corpse over his shoulders and danced in ‘Pralaya Thandava’. At this juncture, the Lord Vishnu, the presenting, force of Universe, sent his ‘Chakra’ to cut down the body of Sathi and redeem the grief of Lord Siva. The Chakra came and cut the body of Sati into eighteen pieces feel in eighteen parts of this ‘Punyabhoomi’ of ours and came to be known as ‘Ashta Dasa Peethas’ and out of these eighteen Sri Manikyamba of Draksharama is the Twelfth.

This Holy Pilgrimage is one of the rare few, where the God and Goddess are equally important. One is Varanasi in Northern India with Viswanatha and Annapurna. Second is Srisailam in Southern India with Sri Mallikharjuna and Bramaramba and third is Draksharama with Bhimanatha and Manikyamba.
There are many mythological anecdotes scattered in many of the Sacred puranas about the ‘Swayambhu’ aspect of the Lord’s existence here.
One of many is for once who is curious to know that Bhimanatha came down from Kailasa and settled here at the request of Parvathi herself who happened to be the daughter of Dakhsa.The historical aspect of the temple goes from the thirteenth century onwards.
This temple is one of the “Pancharamas”. This is an ancient and holy pagoda. This is one of the reputed piligrim centers in Andhra Pradesh. Thousands of pilgrims and devotees visit the temple and worship the Lord to receive blessings.

This temple is managed by the Executive Officer under the control of the Endowments Departments. Devi Navaratrulu, Karthika Masam, Dhanurmasam, Birthday Celebration of Sri Bhimeswara Swamy varu, Subrahmanya Shasti, Maha Sivaratri and Kalyanam etc., are the important festivals of this Temple.

This temple is a protected Monument. The Archaeological Department has to undertake the renovation works of this temple to create beauty and divine atmosphere. The wealth of inscriptions and epigraphical details that can be glanced from the inscriptions on the walls of this temple are a paradise for the epigraphist and the historian.

Chennakesava Swami Temple, Pushpagiri

Pushpagiri town in Cuddapah district is well known for its numerous temples. Some of them are of considerable antiquity and a few of artistic sculpture. Many of these shrines lie on or along a hill devoid of vegetation, rising slopingly from the very edge of the Penneru, which has fairly deep banks in this stretch. Actually it is this hill, which is called Pushpagiri or sometimes ‘Sumagiri’.

About the first decade of this century, as many as twenty-eight temples, mostly in ruins, were noted in the area. The largest and the best known among them is situated on the lower slopes of the hill, overlooking the hamlet of Pushpagiri on the other side of the river. It is known as ‘Chennakesvara’ or ‘Chennakesava’ Temple and is approached from the river, when it is wadable, by a long flight of steps, laid angularly.

The Rich Sculptural Art
Its entrance is surmounted by a lofty five-storeyed gopuram. The main temple in the yard within, has a few attendant temples on either side. The exterior walls containing the sculptures are built of limestone. The sculptures include those of Lord Shiva dancing with four and eight hands, Shiva and Arjuna fighting, Arjuna’s penance, Arjuna getting ‘Pasupatastra’ from Shiva, Seshasayana, scenes from Ramayana and Mahabharata, dancers, rows of warriors and other carvings with various animal and floral motifs and fancifully engraved pillars.

Time Of The Festivity
The annual utsavam of the Chennakesava temple lasts for ten days from Chaitra Bahula Thrayodasi(March-April) and attracts a large concourse. Some of the devotees make it a point to walk round the long Pushpagiri hills.

Dwaraka Tirumala-Sri Venkateswara swamy

This pilgrimage centre is called “Dwaraka Tirumala” after the great saint, “Dwaraka” who located the self manifested idol of Lord “Sri Venkateswara” after severe penance in a ‘Valmikam’ (ant hill). The devotees call Sri Venkateswara as Kaliyuga Vaikunta Vasa. This place is also called “Chinna Tirupati”.

As per Sastras North Indian rivers like Ganges and Yamuna are considered to be more and more holy as they go up to the origin and south Indian rivers like Krishna and Godavary are more and more holy as they go down the river to its mouth to the Sea. It is why there are numerous shrines and holy bathing ghats, at close intervals, on both sides of the great grand rivers Krishna and Godavary in their lower regions.

The region covered by our Dwaraka Tirumala is commanding the top most conspicuous position in India, being garlanded by these two great Indian rivers Krishna and Godavary, as pointed out by Brahma Purana.

The devotees who wish to go and offer their donations, or tonsures or any other offerings to Lord Venkateswara, Lord of Tirumala Tirupati, called as “Pedda Tirupati”, due to some reason, if they are unable to go there, they can offer their donations, prayers and worship in Dwaraka Tirumala temple.

Dwaraka Tirumala is a famous temple from the ancient times. According to some Puranas, the temple is popular even in Kruta yuga and is still attracting the devotees. According to Brahma Purana, Aja Maharaja, the Grand father of Lord Sri Rama also worshiped Lord Venkateswara for his marriage. On his way to the ‘Swayamvaram’ of Indumati, he passed by the temple. He did not offer prayers in the temple. The bride Indumati garlanded him, but he had to face a battle with the kings who came to the Swayamvaram. He realized that the battle was thrust on him for ignoring the temple on the way. After realizing this, Aja Maharaja prayed to the Lord Venkateswara. Suddenly the kings stopped the battle.

It is a great wonder to see two main idols under one Vimana Sikharam. One idol is a full and complete statue. The other is a half statue of the upper portion of the form of the Lord. The upper potion of the form is a self-manifested idol located by Sage “Dwaraka”. The saints of the yore felt the prayers to the Lord are not complete without worshipping His holy feet. So, the saints joined together and installed a full statue behind the self-manifested idol, to worship the feet of the Lord according to Vaikhanasa Agamam.

It is believed that the prayers to the smaller statue of the Lord will lead to Moksha, and the big form stands for Dharma, Artha and Kama. The Tiru kalyanotsavam is celebrated twice a year. One for the self manifested idol in the month of “Vaisakha” and the other for the installed idol in the month of “Aswayuja”.
MAGNIFICIENCE OF THE SANCTUM SANCTORUM:
On entering the sanctum sanctorum, one feels a most inspiring and enchanting experience. The presiding mythological deity Lord Venkateswara is visible upto the Bust size and the lower portion is imagined to be in the earth. The holy feet are said to be offered to Bali Chakravarthi in “Patala” for his daily worship. The full size idol of Lord Sri Venkateswara standing at the back of the main idol is said to have been installed by the great social reformer Srimad Ramanuja of the 11 th century. The idols of Padmavathi and Nanchari are installed in the Arthamandapa facing east. This is a full equipped shrine to be a Divyasthala.

COMBINATION OF SIVA AND VISHNU ON ADISESHA:
The most peculiar aspect here is that the hill appearing to be a serpant in form, even to the naked eye, confirms the mythological version that Anantha, the serpant king has taken up this terrestial form of serpant hill and is carrying God Mallikarjuna on the hood and Lord Venkateswara on the tail, thus creating a happy and harmonious compromise of Vaishnavism and Saivism at a single place.

RENOVATION AND ORIGIN OF THE PRESENT STRUCTURE:
The magnificent monuments like, Vimana, Mantapa, Gopura, Prakara etc., stand to the credit of Dharma Appa Raoa recent ruler (1762 – 1827) and the golden ornaments and silver vahanas stand to the credit of the generous queen Rani Chinnamma Rao of Mylavaram, Krishna Dist. (1877 – 1902). These things immortalize the glory of the shrine.
The main temple is a masterpiece of South Indian Architecture with its five-storied main Rajagopuram facing the south and three other gopurams on the other three sides. The Vimana is in the Nagara style and old Mukhamantapa is extended to a great extent to suit the present day needs. There are several temples of Alwars attached to the Prakara on all sides. The whole spacious compound has been paved with stone and flower trees are grown in an order as if to feast the eye of the pilgrims.

About the Temple:
“Dwaraka Tirumala” is an ancient holy place and a popular pilgrim center in Andhra Pradesh of South India. Dwaraka Tirumala is nearer to ‘Eluru’, the head quarters of West Godavari District, which is 42 KM away from Eluru. Dwaraka Tirumala is situated at 15KM distance from Bhimadole Junction, which is in between Vijayawada and Rajahmundry State Highway and Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam main Railway line

Yadagirigutta

Yadagirigutta is the divine abode of Lord Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy. It is situated in Nalgonda District of Andhra Pradesh, India about 60 KMS away from Hyderabad., the state capital.

LEGEND
In Tretayugam, there lived a sage by the name of Yadarishi, son of the great sage Rishyasrunga and Santa Devi who did penance inside a cave with the blessings of Anjaneya on this hill between Bhongir(Bhuvanagiri) and Raigiri (Now in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh,India). Pleased with his deep devotion, Lord Narasimha, an incarnation of Lord Vishnu appeared before him in five different forms as Jwala, Yogananda, Gandabherunda, Ugra and Lakshminarasimha. They later manifested themselves into finely sculpted forms that later came to be worshipped as Pancha Narasimha Kshetram.

As the legend goes, the Lord appeared first as Jwala Narasimha (Lord as a flame), when Yadarishi was unable to face the intensity of this apparition, he appeared in a peaceful form as Yoganarasimha (Lord in a Yogic Padmasana posture with open palms on the knees). Not satisfied with the Lord appearing alone, Yadarishi sought to see him with this consort, so Lord is said to have appeared with Lakshmi on his lap, known as Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy. To see these three forms one has to go through an entrance that narrows itself into a dark cave. Interestingly, the cave is formed under a huge rock, which forms a sloping roof into a height of just 5-ft in the middle for the passage inside. While going through this constricted passage one has necessarily to lower his head slightly. Thus the very natural formation of the cave itself makes one bow involuntarily to the Lord.

At the end of the cave, there are the actual images of the Lord. One can see two rocks fastened to each other and forming a vertical cup of about one -foot between them. On the other side of the rock, we can see the image in the shape of a serpent head and ending like its tail. This is said to be the aspect of God known as Jwala Narasimha, first manifestation of Lord. Popular tradition has it that a divine serpent still moves about the image. On the opposite rock, there is another image of Lord seated in meditation (Padmasana posture) which is the image of Yogananda Narasimha, the second manifestation of Lord, along with the The third manifestaion as Lakshmi Narasimha on the same rock. The fourth form, Ugranarasimha(Fiery form of Narasimha), reveals His Fierce Mouth to us as the wide entrance to the cavern itself because it was beyond the strength of a sage to see that form and Gandabherunda ( the garuda pakshi or the eagle) is the fifth form of the Lord which is said to have been found sculpted in rock underneath the Anjaneya, known as ‘Kshetrapalaka’ (or the one who ruled over that hill). This form is known only by the presence of an eternal lamp that burns within a crevice underneath Sri Anjaneya sannidhi. All these forms are known as “swayambhu” or self emanated. As these rupams of the Lord are sometimes difficult to see in the small crevice inside the cavern that serves as His sannidhi, Lord Narasimha and Lakshmi stand together as large silver utsava murthis as Sri LakshmiNarasimha. It is this form of the Lord and Lakshmi that are known and adored by all the devotees visiting the Temple. Yadarishi is said to have been granted his wish that the place where the Lord appeared will be known by his name as Yadagiri (giri means hill in Sanskrit, and gutta which means a hillock in Telugu seems to have been a latter-day suffix) and that Lord Lakshmi Narasimha will be worshipped for many years to come.

There are Puranic and traditional accounts of this Shrine, which are widely popular among the devotees. There is mention about the origin of this temple in the Skanda Purana, one of the famous 18 puranas.

Glowing bright atop the sikharam of garbha griha(Sanctum sanctorum) of this cave temple is the golden Sudarshana chakra (about 3 ft x 3ft) of Lord Vishnu (whose reincarnation is Lord Narasimha) the adornment as well as the weapon is a symbol this temple is identified by from as far away as 6 km. It is said that many years ago the chakra moved in the direction from which the devotees came as if like a compass guiding them towards itself.

Lord Narasimha is believed to have been worshipped by sages (rushis). The region of Yadagirigutta is reputed to be a “Rushi Aradhana Kshetram” or the place of worship for sages .

As the belief goes, Lord Narasimha has taken on the role of a “doctor” and is known as “Vaidya Narasimha” by his devotees at this shrine to cure many chronic diseases and the role of a ‘do gooder’ to those who are under the influence of bad planets, witch craft and black magic. Many instances are cited of the Lord appearing in the dreams of the devotees, and administering medicines and operated the patients and blessed them with good health. Many devotees tell of vivid dreams in which the Lord comes to heal them from chronic or terminal illnesses, and even mental or emotional problems. A mandala (40 day) pradakshina is very popular made by many a devotee cured of a long standing ailment or chronic disease. Often times, the Lord Himself has imparted mantrOpadEsham to select devotees in their dreams.

Another Legend also has it that Sriman Narayana, pleased with YAda’s tapas, sent Sri Anjaneya to direct the rishi to a holy spot, where the Lord appeared to him in the form of Sri LakshmiNarasimha. This spot is marked by a temple located at the foot of the Yadagiri hillock, and is located about 5 km from the present temple. There the sage worshipped the Lord for many years.

After Yadarishi attained mOksham, a number of tribals, hearing of the Lord’s presence, came to worship Him at this temple. But, not being very learned, these devotees began to engage in improper worship. Because of this, Sri LakshmiNarasimha moved into to the hills. The tribals searched for many years to find their Lord, to no avail.

After many years had passed, the Lord appeared in the dream of a devout lady among the tribe, directing her to a large cavern wherein He revealed Himself to all as five majestic Avatharams.

The Places to Visit near by the Temple:

Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple at Pathagutta:

This temple is situated near Peddireddy Gudem which is about 2 K.M far from the temple.

This deity is in the form of stone, and similar Kainkaryams / Uthsavams are being performed in the main temple through out the year. Recently this temple was renovated at a cost of Rs.45, 000/- and has good appearance. At present this Devasthanam is maintaining the Temple.

Sri Ramalingeswara Swamy Temple:
Sri Ramalingeswara Swamy and Sri Parvathi Vardhani Ammavaru is a sub temple situated on the uphill near footsteps.

Mahanandi

Mahanandi is situated in one of the Nallamalai hills that lie towards the east. It can be approached from Nandyal, it is only ten miles from Nandyal. The place lies in a natural and ravishing beauty surrounded on all sides by green foliage of thick forest and served by a sacred Tirtha.The temple is situated at the foot of the hill from under which perennial mineral spring’s flow out into the fields.Springs, which flow from beneath the Linga of the temple into the tank in front of it. The sacred shrine is surrounded by Mantapas on all sides.

The temple is unique in many respects. The Vimana over the Garbhagriha is built purely in the Nagari style, which is characteristic of North India. Like the several Jain temples it has a Sikara at the top, shooting up to the skies in vertical lines. The popular legend is that a Rasa Siddha Of the north built the Vimana and to pay the wages for the laborers, he made the workers put up sand mounds and by his Mantra Sakti produced wealth equal to the services rendered by, them. Consistent with this version main gate of the temple faces the west which general indicative of Deva or Risbi Pratishta.
HISTORY:

Nanda was ruling over the domain of Navanandis in which Mahanandi is situated. The king once conceived the idea of anointing the idol of the Lord and performing abhishekam in milk to it. Herds of cows were therefore brought from far and near to supply the required milk. A herd of cows from Gopavaram. Which came there contained a black cow. It used to be the main supply of milk to the king. This cow used to travel freely and graze in the forest.In course of time, it was noticed that the cow was absenting itself
for long periods of time in the Forest, and that its milk supply also tended to decrease considerably. One day the cowherd followed the cow to the forest to find out why the milk supply was diminishing. He found the cow grazing round an anthill and, after some time, it stood right over it. The milk was flowing into the anthill and, at last the form of a young child in the form of Lord Krishna peeped out of the ant-hill and gave Darshan to the cow, after which the cow returned to the cowherd. The news was carried to the king and the king guessed correctly that the child was the Lord himself who had come to test his faith. The next day the king also followed the cow and, hiding himself in a dense bush was lying there deep in meditation, and expecting to have a glimpse of the Lord. The cow arrived and circled round the ant-hill, being wrapped in devotion to the Lord. The Lord in the form of child appeared and accepted the offering of the milk from the cow. The king in his amazement trampled upon some Lexis and, being disturbed in its devotion, the cow became nervous and stepped on the ant-hill in its fright. The child disappeared and, as though the anthill was made of moist clay, the hoof of the cow was imprinted on the ant-hill. The king being frightened that he had unwittingly committed Devapachara, prayed for forgiveness to the Lord, and the Lord, being pleased with the king’s repentance, ordained that the ant-hill trodden by the cow would cool down itself and would become a Swayambhulinga at Mahanandi. Hence it is that the two signs on the top of the Linga at Mahanandi are still visible.A huge Nandi lies in front of the Lord’s shrine and possibly the place is called as Mahanandi Tirtha because of this Nandi. The tank lying behind is known as Rudra gundam and there are two more tanks called Vishnu gundam and Brahma gundam.

The architectural beauty of the temple, the arrangement of the tank in front and such other peculiarities that we find in the temple show that it is an ancient temple dating back to the hoary past and that it was repaired and rebuilt through successive ages by many kings. Mahanandi formed part of Kurnool Circar over which the Nawab of Kurnool was exercising sway in the 17th and the 18th centuries. The Nawab used to spend from his treasury money for the Sivarathri festival at Mahanandi, This speaks volumes to the
sanctity and popularity of the temple to which even Muslim governors of the province paid some attention.

The Tirtha of the temple is famous for its curative properties, and it contains warm or tepid mineral water right through the year. The main Tirtha is in front of the Mukhamantapa of the Lord’s temple. It is a sixty feet square tank with a mantapa in the centre. The inlets and outlets of the tank are so arranged that the depth of the water be constantly kept only at five feet, thus enabling all pilgrims to have a plunge. The source of supply of water to this tank has not been traced up to now. The water is seen flowing
into the tank through some inlets that have been built. But their exact location is still a matter of doubt. The five springs from out of which the Tirtha is supplied with water are called Srisaila- dhara, Narasimhadhara, Daivodhinidhara, Nanditirtha and Kailasatirtha. The water is crystalline pure and is ever tepid.

The Mula vigraha of the Lord in Lingakara is very unique, and unlike any of its counterparts in India, it is like a rough uncut rock, with two sockets. But it is considered to have great spiritual value since it contains saligramas, which are of immense value to the Vaishnava .

Within a radius of ten miles of Mahanandi there are nine Nandi temples called 1. Padma Nandi, 2. Naga Nandi, 3. Vinayaka Nandi, 4. Garuda Nandi,
5. Brahma Nandi, 6. Surya Nandi, 7. Vishnu Nandi, 8. Soma Nandi and 9. Siva Nandi. In fact the word Nandyal itself is a corruption of the word Nandi Alayam.

Srikurmam

Srikurmam is a famous temple situated at a distance of about 18 kms to the southeast of Srikakulam town. The village Srikurmam derive of its name from the temple, which is dedicated to Lord Vishnu in the Avathara of Srikurmam viz., the Avathara of a tortoise, and hence the deity is called Srikurmanatha. The temple is of very great sanctity, being the only important temple to Lord Vishnu in the Kurmavathara in the whole of India.
Once up on a time Swetha chakravarthi who was a king ruled this area.This area is also called Swetha Puram (now it is Salihundam), his wife called asHaripriya (other name Vishnu Priya). Vanitamandalam was the place where the queens palace existednearly 14 km from the ruling area swetha Puram. It was on a Magha suddha ekadasi (it also known as Bheeshma ekadasi) day that Swetha chakravathi visited his queen in her palace. She was immersed herself in gods worship by fasting and leaving all her luxury, there was a tradition maintained that whenever the king wanted to go to the palace, first of all he must be intimated and take permission from the queen. But the king went to the palace with out any intimation, when the king saw her with lusty when She was in a dilemma situation whether to enjoy herself with her husband or to participate in worship. She herself prayed God as her mind was troubled by the duel importance of the idea.

Then she prayed to God for help. Then the lord Vishnu created a great river flow between them to divide them. And the river at present is called as Vamsadhara which means a flow from a bamboo stick. Then the king approached by running to escape from the river flow. And the king reached the Swethachella Mountain and sat alone with a great melancholy for his uncontrollable emotions. At that time Naradha appeared there and said that when women were approaching lord Kurmanadha by worshiping him you men are getting away from him due to your general temptations and this accident was happened because of your wife who prayed Kurmanadha to save her from that pathetic situation. And he also suggested worshiping lord Kurmanadha to receive the hymn (OM KUM KURMAAYA NAMAHA). Then the king started worshipping Kurmanadha at Chakra Thirtha.

Then lord Kurmanadha appeared there and asked him to ask a boon. Then the king said that he want to see lord Kurmanadha in his second incarnations of Kurmanadha (Tortoise form). Then the God asked for the explanation why he wanted to see him in second incarnation?

Then the king answered that he wanted incarnation that because it was worked as base for the Manthara Parvatha at the time of churning the Kshirasagara by using the snake named Vasuki as a thread to obtain Amrutha (a drink to become immortal) and that is why that incarnation is called as Amrutha kurmanadha.

On the request of the king lord Kurmanadha resided there in the form of Kurmanadha (Tortoise shape). Srihari gave his consent for temple to be constructed by the king. Narada led the King to GodBrahma who visited the temple and installed Krurmanadha with divine Mantra, Sudhrsana, took active effect that arose flames of burning fire. Then Brahma subsided the flames by the soothing effects of Gopalamantra.

In the dynasty of Cholas this temple was developed. According to the history of Kalinga seema, it is specified that after the rule of Cholas, Kalinga Ganga Rajas dynasty ruled this area. From the 7th century, this temple was recognized. It is specified that the temple has been developed in different modes under the rule of Gangaraja. As specified in the stones around the temple, Anangabheema, the successor of Gangarajas dynasty built the floor and top around the temple in 12th century.The architecture of the temple and its pillars are called Gandarva silpa sampada, the temple focused the rule, name and fame of Kalinga and Andhra dynasties.

This world famous temple consists of almost 200 black granite pillars with unique sculpture and two flagpoles (dwjastamdhams).

Some important aspects of the temple:

    1. God is faced towards the west side.
    2. Two-dwaza sthambha temple.
    3. Total sculpture is gandhara sculpture.
    4. Nearly about 210 pillars.
    5. Every pillar has its individual identity.
    6. Total inscriptions are 127in four languages.(Devanagari, Prakrutham and Oriya Languages)
    7. Main temple tower is called Padmavimanam (Gandharava Vimanam).
    8. This temple is meant for human life Praischittam.
    9. Solvating problems for human life by the Kurmanadha.
    10. This temple total region is called Swethachalam (white soil mountain region).
    11. It is a unique temple.
    12. Human bones turns like a stone in this Swethapuskarney water with in weekdays it means this water has a chemical change, calcium contents can be diluted here only because it is a Pitruskshetra Therham.
    13. Three religious narahari theerthulu swamiji,acharaya ramanuja swamiji, shankaracharya, followers visited this place they performed many pujas to Lord Sri kurmanadha.
    14. This two dwazasthambhas are symbols of integrity among Saiva (Shiva) Sweatha, Vaishnava vedakalu.
    15. Madahvaites, Saivietes, Visnavites these three religious people worship the god Kurmanatha.

Arasavalli

The famous Sun God temple situated in Arasavalli Village which is at a distance of about 1KM east of Srikakulam in A.P. It is one of the ancient and all among 2 SUn God temples in Our COuntry. According to Padmanpuranam, Sage Kasyapa installed the Idol of Surya at Arasavalli for th welfare of mankind.He’s also termed as Planetary King. The sthalapurnam of the temple narrates that Lord Devendra had found this temple and installed the existing idol of Sun God commonly known as Lord Suryanarayana Swamy.

History of the temple:

Once upon a time Indra, the Lord of Heaven, attempted to force his way into the temple of Koteeswara at an untimely hour and the gate-keeper Nandi kicked him and turned him out.
Indra, humiliated and crest-fallen, fell back about two miles away, unconscious. While in his unconscious state, he in his Anta- ratma perceived Lord Surya who told him that he would be cured of his pain if he enshrined the Sun God arid had a big temple built at that place.

After regaining his consciousness Indra remembered the dream and at once installed the idol of Lord Surya at the every place where he lay and established a beautiful temple, which was, designed by Maya the chief architect of the Gods. This is said to be the Arasavalli temple.

The idol of the Lord is excellently carved out of black granite stone, and shows the Lord with two lotuses held in both his hands as laid down in the Agamic injunctions.
The hood of Adisesha is spread over the figure of the Lord. On the other side are carved the figure of Usha, Padmini and Chaya, the three consorts of the Lord.

At the base of the figure of Pingala and Danda, who are his gatekeepers, there are the divine saints Sanaka and Sananda holding two chamaras in their hands.
There is enough of historical evidence to show that the temple at Arasavalli has been existing from a long time.
0ne epigraph from an Eastern Kalingaking, which dynasty ruled over Kalinga in an un- broken line from the 4th to the 14thcentury, reveals that Aditya Vishnu Sarman and Bhanu Sarman were brothers, and sons of Narayana, Bhattu who greatly attached to Lord Surya at Arasavalli.

There was, are also inscriptions by a General of the king. Srikarana, who had donated five puttis of land to the Sun God, to run a school and a hostel there for the education of pupils studying Sanskrit.

This clearly shows that the temple has been in existence from ancient times.
The original temple seems to have fallen into disuse, and one Yelamanchili Pullaji Panthulu reconstructed the present temple in the year 1778 A.D.
At the time of it e reconstruction of the temple certain modifications were effected and some more minor deities were installed.

The Sastras enjoin the worship of the Panchayatanas consisting of Aditya, Ambika, Vishnu, Ganesa and Maheswara.

One of the five beings made the principal deity, and the remaining the subsidiary deities.

At Arasavalli, Lord Suryanarayana forms the central figure, while the others occupy minor positions.

In addition an image of Indra has also been installed here. The temple is very famous for its great sanctity and holiness

Sun worship has been prescribed from ancient days as a means of attaining worldly prosperity.
Agasthya Maharshi is said to have taught the Aditya Hridaya or prayer to Lord Sun, to Rama on the eve of Lord Rama’s fight with Ravana.

In the Bhavishya Purana, it is stated that Samba, son of Srikrishna, was cured of his leprosy by his constant worship of the Sun God.

Mayura, who lived in the court of Harsha- vardhana in the 7th century A.D., compos- ed Surya Sataka or hundred verses in praise of Lord Sun in order to cure himself of blindness, while in Malati-Madhavam, Bhavabuti, the great Sanskrit poet, makes the Sutradhara invoke the rising Sun for the purification of sin.

The temple is still a very powerful one and devotees from far and near visit the shrine for the redress of their grievances.
Many incurable ailments such as leprosy, blindness and barrenness among women have been miraulously cured.
And the sufferings of people removed here. They thus become devoted to the Lord and regularly visit the temple.

Harshavilli purivasam chayosha padminiyutham
suryanaryanam devam nowmi sarvatha dayakam

Annavaram – Sri Satyanarayana Swamy

Annavaram , the holy village of East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh , is situated at a distance of two miles from Annavaram Railway Station on the Vijayawada-Visakhapatnam broad gauge section of the Southern Railways and 45 Kms from East Godavari District Head Quarters Kakinada Town. Annavaram village touches the foot of the sacred Ratnagiri Hill on which the temple of Sri Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Swamy is situated.
In the Temple Complex
Sri Veera Venkata Satyanaryana Swamy in the main temple on the ratnagiri hill. Sri Sita Rama Swamy temple (ksehatra palakulu )
The shrines of Vana Durga and Kanaka Durga are located near by. Godess Vanadurga held in great venaration and devi is said to be seen even to this day in the nights going about the holy precincts perpetually guarding the lord.
The temple of gramadevatha (Village deity ) is in the village at the foot of the hill.

As per the puranas the presiding deity of the place blesses the devotees with Anina Varam (Wanted Boon) the place is called Annavaram.
The hillock by the side of the village is considered to be very sacred. Meruvu the Lord of the hills and his consort Menaka did great penance and begot two sons by the grace of Lord Vishnu. One was named Bhadra and the other Ratnakara. Bhadra pleased Lord Vishnu with his devotion and penance and with his grace became Bhadrachalam on which Lord Sri Rama had permanently settled. Ratnakara desired to emulate his brother and succeeded in
pleasing Lord Vishnu by his penance to settle on him as Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Swamy, Ratnakara remaining as Ratnagiri hill.

It is said that Raja I.V.Ramanarayanam,the then zamindar of Gorsa and Kirlampudi estates, having been ordained by the Lord in his dream, traced the idol on the hill, worshipped it and installed it at the present spot on sravana suddha vidhiya of the telugu year Khara, 1891. The hillock it self is about 300ft above sea level, green fields all-round the hills and the pampa river encircling Ratnagiri. About 460 well laid stone steps leads to the top of it.

“The main temple constructed in the form of a chariot with the four wheels at each of the four corners. In front of the main temple is the kalyana mantapa, constructed and decorated with modern pieces of architecture. As we go down the way, we come across Ramalaya and then the shrines of Vana Durga and Kanaka Durga.
The Akriti of any temple is, according to the Agni Purana, merely a manifestation of the Prakriti. According to this the chariot of the temple is intended as a symbol of the Seven Lokas and the seven Lokhas above with, the garbhalaya of the Lord, at the heart’s center ruling over the entire Universe.
The temple at Annavaram has been constructed to depict this idea concretely. The front side of the temple depicts the chariot. The Meru on the floor with the pillar at the center, and the idols at the top are intended to bring forth the idea that the Lord not only remains at the heart’s center but also permeates the entire universe. The wheels depicting the Sun and the Moon serve to remind us that this Juggernaut moves on the wheels of time, and goes on for ever and ever, Thus the Annavaram temple satisfies both
the ritualistic values and the spiritual aspirations of the devotees.”

Sri Satyanarayanaryana Swamivari Vratam

Sri Satyanarayana Vratham is performed allover world by devotees for wealth, education, prosperity, and offspring, relief from troubles and sickness and success in business. When it came to be known that Lord Satyanarayana had manifested himself on the Ratnagiri hills at Annavaram with unique form combining the Trimurthis Viz., Brahma, Vishnu and Siva. Ekadasi is considered to be very auspicious for the Vratham, it is performed even on other convenient days by the individual devotees. The great popularity behind the Vratham springs form the experiences narrated in stories and legends and also the faith gained by observances in daily life.

The important legend connected with this Vratham was that once Sage Naradha was very much distressed at the misery of marthyas (men in this world) and prayed Lord Vishnu to be informed of a way out for them. The Lord then told him that Satyanarayana Vratham would relieve men of their troubles and would ensure worldly prosperity and salvation after deth. He also narrated that a pious Brahmin of Banaras performed the Vratham first. It was also described how King Ulkamukha of Bhadrasilanagaram, Emperor Tungadhwaja and a community of Gollas in his kingdom, a Vaisya business man named Sadhuvu, and a poor woodcutter of Banaras had performed this vratham and were blessed by Lord Satyanarayana Swamy (Vishnu himself) with all they desired. The vratham has caught the fascination of millions owing to these stories within the understanding of scholars as well as layman. All classes of people took to its performance and it is popular for its efficacy.

Vratam Procedure

Before the sankalpam (inauguration) the floor is cleaned with cow-dung, a square peace of new cloth is spread over it, after decorating it with muggulu with four of five colours. Rice is spread as a layer upon the cloth and a kalasam of silver, copper, brass or clay is kept and covered with mango leaves or betel leaves and a piece of new cloth. A small image of Lord Satyanarayana Swamy made preferably with gold or silver is kept on the cloth after abhishekam in panchamrutham. Afterwards, Vigneswara, Lakshmi, Parvathi, Siva, Navagrahas and Ashta Dikpalakas are worshipped in order. After wards Lord Satyanarayana Swamy is invoked and worshiped. The Satyanarayana prasadam prepared with plantains, cow’s milk, cow’s ghee, ravva of wheat or sojji and sugar or jaggery is offered to the friends and relatives invited for this sacred vratham. The priest who conducts the puja is given dakshina. Satyanarayana Vratha katha (legend and about the efficacy of the vratham) is recited and listened to with rapt attention by all including those gathered to witness the vratham.

“Kathamva srunuyadyasthu pasyedwam vrathamuthamam
thasya nasyanthi papani Satyadeva prasadithaha”

When one cannot perform the vratham, even withnessing the vratham, or listening to the story would remove the troubles and wash off the sins.

Sri Swamivari Jayanti

The second day of the Saravana Sukla being the day of the Lords deacent is celebrated as the Lords birthday with great éclat.

Sri Swamyvari Kalyana mahotsavam

The crown all the festivals during the year the 5 days celebration of the Lords Marriage with his consort are held commencing on the Vysakha Sudda Ekadasi during the Kalayanam Celebrations various cultural programmes processions with beautiful decorations etc. Will be arranged. Grama sevas are being conducted on Every Ekadasi day on every during Dhanur Masam.

Panakala narasimha swamy–Mangalagiri

The hill temple of Mangalagiri enshrines Pankala Narasimha and is located at an easily accessible distance from Vijayawada. The three well known Narasimha shrines in Andhra Pradesh are Ahobilam, Simhachalam and Mangalagiri.
Mangalagiri has two temples, one at the foothills dedicated to Lakshmi Narasimha and the other on the Mangalagiri hill dedicated to Pankala Narasimha.

Pankala (Paanakam in tamil) – a solution of jaggery (unrefined sugar) in water, is the offering made to the presiding deity Narasimha. This offering is actually poured into the mouth of the rock cut image of the deity. It is believed that exactly half the amount of the liquid poured, is regurgitated by the image. Also interestingly, despite the liberal use of sugar (unrefined), there are no ants in the temple premises. It should be noted that the only shrine in this temple is that of Narasimha.

The Mangalagiri hill is in the shape of an elephant. Legend has it that a certain prince by name Hrusva Sringi was born with a number of bodily deformities dedicated himself to a life of prayer, assuming a form of a huge elephant, at the mouth of which Narasimha took abode.

The temple tank is known as the Lakshmi Pushkarini. Legend has it that this pushkarini was created by the Gods, combining the waters from several holy rivers of the land, and that Mahalakshmi (who came out of the milky ocean when it was churned by the gods and the asuras), bathed in this pushkarini and married Vishnu thereafter.

Legend has it that Rama offered worship to Narasimha here.
The temple at the foothills of Mangalagiri – dedicated to Lakshmi Narasimha, has an imposing 11 storeyed raja gopuram built by a local chieftain. Inscriptions indicate that the Vijayanagar monarch Krishna Deva Raya visited this temple. This temple celebrates it’s annual festival in March.

Legend has it that this temple was founded by the Pandava prince Yuddhishtra. It is to be noted that the Indrakila hill in Vijayawada is associated through the Kiratarjuniya legend with Arjuna. It is to be noted that that legend has it that that the Mallikarjuna temple at Vijayawada was installed by Yuddhishtra and that the Vijayeswara temple there was installed by Arjuna.

Sri Jaganmohini Kesava & Gopala Swamy Temple – Ryali

Ryali is located 40 Km from Rajahmundry, 74 Km from Kakinada and 34 Km from Amalapuram and it is situated between the rivers Vashista and Gautami, Tributaries of river Godavari, this is the site of the renowned Jagan Mohini Kesava Swamy temple. The exquisite idol, made of black stone depicting Maha Vishnu and Mohini on its front and rear sides, is a real marvel of sculptural dexterity.
According to the legend “Bhagavatam” while Devatas and Rakshas were quarrelling over sharing of holy Devine nectar “Sree Maha Vishnu” came to the rescue of Devatas in the guise of Mohini and convinced both the rivalry groups promising to distribute holy Devine nectar in equal share to Devatas and Rakshas. But in the interest of universal peace and welfare of sages, holy and Devine nectar was distributed among Devatas alone and the Mohini disappeared.

Lord Siva having seen the most fascinating beauty of Mohini allured her. He chased her for getting for a while the presence of his consort Parvathi Devi it is the general belief that the holy incident was the result of birth of “AYYAPPA SWAMY”. One flower from the plait of Mohini fell down and it was smelt by Lord Siva. Then he surprisingly found “Sree Maha Vishnu” in the form of Mohini and felt shy for his behavior.

The place where the flower from the plait of Mohini fell is named as RYALI the Telugu meaning of “Fall”. This place known as Ryali for the above reason became above of Lord Siva and Sree Mahavishnu with the form of Mohini on back side Lord Brahma consecrated the Siva Lingam with his Kamandalam and hence Lord Siva at Ryali is worshipped as Sri Uma Kamandalesara Swamy Varu, Sri Mahavishnu with the form of Mohini on backside is worshipped as Sri Jaganmohini Kesava Swamy varu both Siva and Vishnu Temples are located facing each other. This is very rare feature at Ryali where Vishnu and Lord Siva Temples faces each other in East, West direction.

During 11th Century, this village was a part of wild Forest and these parts were under the rule of Chola Rajas. Sri Raja Vikrama Deva who ruling these parts during those days came to this place for hunting. Having been tired after hunting wild animals, he took rest under the shade of a big ponna tree, and fell in deep sleep and got a dream. Lord Sri Maha Vishnu appeared in his dream and informed that his shrine was located in the under ground of this area and directed the “Raja to get the wooden made chariot pull in the area and where the nail of chariot fell, the shrine can be found in the under ground of that place. Raja has done accordingly and the land where the nail of chariot fell was excaved and found the idol making the dream of Raja true. He constructed a small temple during 11th Century and arranged worship during his regime. Gradually prakarams were developed in the year 1936 (Data nama Samvatsara) it was renovated.

The Shrine of Sri jaganmohini kesava Swamy varu is Salagrama Ekasila with 5 feet height and 3 feet width. Salgramasila is itself the form of Sri Maha Vishnu. The idol of Sree Kesava Swamy varu of “Sri Mahavishnu” in front side and Jagan Mohini on back side. The tem incarnations Lord Sree Maha Vishnu with consorts, Sri Devi, BhooDevi, Sage Narada, Thumbura, Rambha, Urvasi, Kinnera, Kimpurusha, Lord Krishna with Govardhanagiri, Adiseshu, Garuda and Ganga are beautifully, scluptured around the shrine. The most miracle and rare feature is that, Ganga always flows from the feet of Sri Maha Vishnu is the origin of Akasa Ganga and this truth can be witnessed here.

The most wonderful architectural beauty of Shrine, and flow of Ganga from the feet of Swamy varu are really unique features and shrine became very sacred. The architectural beauty of idol can not be described in words. Further it gives impression as it is new idol though its origin is of 11th Century. This shrine is “SWAYAMBHU” people visiting the temple form several parts of the Country believe that the shrine is not of man made but certainly creation of Devatas and Darsan of Swamy varu gives the feeling of presence of real God

Manthralayam

Poojyaya Raghavendraya Sathya Dharma Ratha Yacha
Bajatham Kalpavrukshaya Namatham Kamadenuve.
(The worship of Sri Raghavendraswamy, who is the embodiment of Sathya and Dharma (Truth and Righteousness), bestows whatever boon one aspires like Kalpavruksha, the Celestial Tree, and Kamadhenu, the Celestial Cow. Incessant chanting of this hymn is a panacea for all ills and problems in life, especially in this age of tension. Also, chanting of “Om Sri Raghavendraya Namaha,” helps immensely.)
IT WAS by force of circumstances that Shankukarna, who was serving Brahma Deva, was ordained to manifest in this world, through all the four yugas, as a staunch devotee of Sriman Narayana. In Kritha yuga he was born as Bhakta Prahalada, in Kali yuga he is said to have reincarnated as Vyasaraja of Vijayanagar and there after, Sri Raghavendra Swamy.
Sri Raghavendra Swamy was born in 1601 A.D. at Bhuvanagiri (Tamil Nadu), by the benign Grace of Lord Venkateswara, when all the planets were in exalted and auspicious houses, bestowing a long divine life, (700 years) full of miracles and healing powers for the welfare of humanity. He ruled the Vedic Samrajya from 1624 to 1671. His 331st Aradhana was celebrated on August 24, when lakhs of devotees thronged Manthralayam and the hundreds of Brindavans in India and abroad.
A famous couplet in Kannada goes like this: Manthralayadilluruva
Karedallige Baruva. The meaning is “Residing in Manthralaya, He will respond to your call.” This is absolutely true. Sri Parimalacharya has given darshan to many in India and abroad, particularly in the U.S., where many Kannada devotees reside.

Venkatacharya, as the saint was known, got married to Saraswathy and the two were leading a happy life, even though they were extremely poor. Also they had implicit faith in God. When Venkatacharya was crowned as Saint Raghavendraswamy, Saraswathy, unable to withstand the pangs of separation committed suicide. By His divine powers, Swami sent her to heaven.

While touring Kumbakonam, Sri Raghavendraswamy was invited to attend a function, with his wife and son. The head of the family requested him to make sandalwood paste, using a grinding slab. It was Swami’s practice to recite Vedic Mantras, mentally. The paste was given to all the guests, who smeared it on their bodies. And they complained of a burning sensation all over. The Swami, tendering his sincere apology, explained that he was inadvertently reciting Agni Stothram, while grinding. He again invoked Lord Varuna and made a paste, which had a cooling effect on every one.

A royal Prince was bitten by a cobra and died immediately. When Swami was told about this, he had the venom extracted by the same snake and the Prince recovered. A devotee, who met with an accident, also got another lease of life.

Raghunatha Rao arranged a special puja for Sri Raghavendraswamy in his house. Mango juice was prepared in a large vessel and kept in the kitchen. His only child fell into the vessel and drowned. Invoking Sri Moola Rama, the Swami sprinkled holy padhodhaka water on the child, bringing it back to life.

The miraculous healing powers of Sri Raghavendraswamy spread far and wide. Some unscrupulous and mischievous boys wanted to test the Swami. On his route, one of them lay down pretending to be dead fully covered by a white cloth. The understanding was that he should not get up when Swami sprinkled water and asked him to rise. He should get up when the command was given by them. The drama was enacted and wailing friends asked Swami to revive the boy. Swami simply said that his life span was over and hence nothing could be done. He was indeed dead and did not awaken when the mocking gang asked him to.

In Sirasangi, a gentle man with an intention to test his powers, gave him a wooden rod covered with steel caps at both ends, and asked him to make it grow into a plant. After meditation, Swami planted it in the soil and sprinkled holy water on it. The dead wood started sprouting. This miracle is incorporated in the Suprabhatam of Sri Raghavendraswamy, in Sanskrit.
Out of profound regard for Sri Raghavendraswamy, the Badshah of Bijapur, presented a rare gem-studded golden necklace. The Swami offered it to God and placed it in the Yaga Kundam. The Badshah was much annoyed and expressed his feeling. The Swami put his hand in the fire, retrieved the chain in the same condition and gave it back.
When Sri Guru Rayar was proceeding to Adoni, Venkanna, a cow-herd boy prostrated before him. The Swami blessed him and advised him to pray at the time of adversities. After a few days, the Nawab of Adoni, who was passing by, stopped and asked Venkanna to read a message from the neighbouring King. The illiterate boy expressed his inability to read. A furious Nawab threatened to kill him if he did not read. Venkanna earnestly prayed to Sri Raghavendraswamy to save him. Most surprisingly, he read the entire text. As there was very good news in the message, the king made him the Dewan of Adoni. After learning about the miraculous powers of Swami, the Nawab decided to test him. He told his Dewan to take him to Guruji. He took meat on a silver plate covered with a silk cloth and offered it. After sprinkling water, Swami asked his disciples to remove the silk cloth revealing fruits. The Nawab fell at Swami’s feet soliciting his person. Also he requested the Swami to ask for any favour or gift. Guruji asked him to hand over Manchala village, which has come to be known as Manthralayam. It is at this holy place that Bhakta Prahlada performed a great yaga.

In 1671, Sri Raghavendra-swamy asked his followers to construct a Brindavan around him, at Manthralayam. He sat there playing on the veena and sang “Indhu Enege Sri Govindha” in Bhairavi invoking Lord Krishna to dance before him. He then controlled his breath and a Brindavan was constructed around him, placing 300 Vishnu Saligramas over his head. It is believed that he is alive inside the Brindavan, another 600 years, performing miracles. His very affectionate devotee, Appannacharya, was late in reaching Manthralaya, by which time the construction of the Brindavan was completed. A sorrow-stricken Appannacharya could not complete an important sloka. From inside, the Swami prompted him with the words, “Sakshi Hayatsothruhi.”

When Sir Thomas Munroe was the Collector of Bellary in 1800, the Madras Government ordered him to procure the entire income from the Math and Manthralaya village. When the Revenue officials were unable to comply with this order, Sir Thomas Munroe visited the Math for investigation. He removed his hat and shoes and entered the sacred precincts. Sri Raghavendraswamy emerged from the Brindavan and conversed with him for sometime, about the resumption of endowment. The Saint was visible and audible only to Munroe who received Manthraksha. The Collector went back and wrote an order in favour of the Math and the village. This notification was published in the Madras Government Gazette in Chapter XI and page 213, with the caption “Manchali Adoni Taluka”. This order is still preserved in Fort St. George and Manthralayam.
All the priests in the Math were much annoyed, because in spite of their long and sincere service, he did not give them darshan. That night, Guruji appeared in the dream of the chief priest and told him that as Prahaladha, he and Munroe were class-mates in Kritha Yuga and he was destined to perform this noble deed of solving the Math’s problem. Hence the unique privilege.

An ardent devotee, who suffered a massive heart attack, and was given up for dead is said to have been revived by Swami who blessed him in person. In another instance, a sceptic person, who questioned the significance of Thursday fasting, was made to realise its importance and he is now a steadfast devotee. Swami appeared before his devotee who had just completed the Sri Satyanarayana Puja and gave her manthrakshe.

A famous film distributor in Chitradurga, had this experience. One morning, all his family members were away, except their servant, a Muslim, who was mopping the floor. Sri Raghavendraswamy stood before him and said in Kannada, “Dhari bidu”, meaning “make way”. He went towards the Puja room, which was locked, and it opened on its own. He had sprinkled water from the front door up to the Puja room, while entering. When the servant went inside, he could not see the “stranger” and was shocked to find the Puja room open. When the family members returned, he narrated the incident about the “stranger”. When they showed him a picture of Sri Raghavendraswamy, he said that it was that very person who came there. Incidentally, the distributor had helped generously in the construction of Brindavans all over the country and Swami had sanctified his house, with holy water.
A devotee in Bangalore had the unique experience of Swami receiving him at the Math. The devotee reached the Math at 1 p.m. and the doors were locked. Crestfallen he was about to retreat when an old priest asked him to come inside. The devotee had darshan and received the prasadam. It was only after he came out did he learn that he had just been involved in a miracle because a person he met outside said that he had the keys to the locked door and it was none other than Swami who had blessed him. And in several cases Swami has blessed childless couples with progeny. B.K.S. Varma, the famous artist of Karnataka, painted a picture of Sri Raghavendraswamy, in a sitting posture and writing on palm leaves. The painting was almost complete, except for the eyes. As it was very late in the night, he was much tired and fell asleep by the side of the photograph.

Sri Raghavendraswamy appeared in his dream and told him that he himself would complete the picture by painting the eyes. When the artist woke up in the morning, the eyes were in place looking radiant. Copies of the precious picture were printed at Bangalore and were all quickly sold. One of them is at the Rayar Math in Saligramam, Chennai.
This writer himself has benefited from the kindness of Swami. A ring which had the embossed figure of Swami was lost and an intensive search did not bring it to surface.
The ring was later found among the valuables in the steel locker, where certainly the writer did not put it.

The life span of Sri Raghavendraswamy is 700 years, of which 400 years have been completed and more than 300 Brindavans installed in India and abroad. Guruji transcends caste and religion. All are equal to him. K. J. Yesudas gave a music performance at Manthralaya, recently, singing songs on Him, paying homage to Swami to whom we shall pray for world pea

Mukteswara,Kaleswara swamy – Karimnagar Dt.

The Mukteswaraswamy temple in the village of Kaleswarm has the rare distinction of having two lingams, one for Lord Shiva and the other for Yama.This picturesque spot Kaleswaram lies in the interior of thick forest at the confluence of the river Godavari and its tributary Pranahita. This place can be reached by bus from Karimnagar via Manthani or from Warangal via Parkal. This ancient place is near the meeting point of three states namely Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.
How to Reach
Kaleswaram in Karimnagar district is situated at a distance of 16 kms from Mahadevapur, 65 kms. from Manthani, 110 kms from Warangal and 130 kms from Karimnagar. Kaleswaram is well connected by Road and there are frequent buses from Mahadevapur and Manthani. Private transport is also available from Mahadevapur and Manthani

Varasiddhi Vinayaka temple at Kaanipakam – Chitttor

CHITTOOR, IN Andhra Pradesh, has at least two famous pilgrim centres within its borders — Tirumala and Sri Kalahasti. In fact, Tiruttani, abode of Lord Muruga also was also part of the district. Less famous but significant in terms of location and worship is the Varasiddhi Vinayakar temple at Kaanipakam. The sleepy village of Kaanipakam is just 12 km from Chittoor town. It is also closer to Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Kani means wetland and Parakam indicates flow of water into wetland, i.e. irrigation. River Baahuda nurtures the land. As the legend goes, there were three handicapped brothers, mute, deaf and blind. They were digging a well to get water for their fields. The device they were using to lift the water fell into the well dashing against a hard object.

When they further dug the well they were startled to see blood gushing out and even as they were looking at the spectacle in astonishement, all the three got rid of their disabilities. People in the surrounding villages rushed to the spot and found an idol of Vinayaka. Further digging, however, failed to reveal the base. Lots of coconuts were offered and the water is said to have flowed into the channel filling a quarter of the field (kani). The place acquired the name Kaaniparakam that became Kaanipakkam and Kaanipakam with a Tamil intonation.
The well in which sits the idol is always full of water. Ganapathi is visible only up to his belly. During monsoon water flows over the idol. The water of the well is distributed as Pavithra Theertham. The Lord is referred to as Nityapravraddar, reflecting the belief that he is growing is size.

There is an interesting tale about River Baahuda. Many many moons ago, two brothers, Sankha and Likhita, wanted to visit Kaanipakam to have darshan of the Lord and set out on a journey. On the way, Likhita, younger of the two, felt hungry and thirsty. The brothers entered a mango grove and Likhita plucked some fruits and ate them though the elder brother objected on the grounds that it amounted to stealing. Sankha took his sibling to the king who ordered that Likhita’s hands be cut off. And the punishment was carried out. The grief stricken elder brother along with Likhita went to the nearby river and both of them had a dip. And lo! Likhita emerged both his hands restored and the river got its name Baahuda (Baahu is hands and da is to give). The annual festival, “Brahmo- tsavam” is held for 20 days commencing from Vinayaka Chaturthi.

There are quite a few temples around Kaanipakam. Archaeologists say that Kulothunga Chola should have built this temple in 11th century. The Temple of Varadarajaswamy makes Kaanipakam a Harihara Kshetram. There are separate shrines for Sri Anjaneya (Kshetra Balagar) and Navagrahas. Access: By air : Tirupati is the nearest airport. By Train: The best way is to proceed to Tirupati and then by road. There is no direct train service to Chittoor from Chennai. AP Tourism operates daily trips to Kaanipakam. By Road: Go to Chittoor via Ranipet and then to Kaanipakam.

Temple of Basar – Goddess Saraswathi

Temple of Basar, the abode of Goddess of Learning, Goddess Saraswathi.
Basar is well connected by rail and road. One can go by train, The Secundrabad –Manmad Express that stops at Basar.And all state transport buses from Hyderabad.

The temple authority provides the Devasthanam Choultry for the devotees and visitors for their stay. There are many guesthouses, restaurants and hotels available on reasonable tariffs.

The temple of Goddess Saraswathi at Basar is one among the two temples of this Goddess. The other is in Kashmir.
Basar is a village situated on the banks of river Godavari; the serene and pious nature attracts the kith and kin. Built at the confluence of the rivers Mangira and Godavari this temple is adorned by the goddess of knowledge and wisdom The Goddess Saraswathi.

According to a popular legend great sage Vysa along with his sonsage Shukaand other disciples desponded and dejected by the Kruskethra War left on a pilgrimage towards Dakshinapatnam (southern India). He retired on the banks of River Godavari for a penance. This was later called Vasar in his honour and gradually is being called as Basar.

During his stay, Sage Vysa bought three handfuls of sand and made them into three heaps daily after the morning bath. The heaps have transformed into the divine trio The Lakshmi, The Sarada and The Gowri. The idol made of sand is smeared with turmeric.

Another popular legend says that Sage Valmiki prior writing his magnus opus The Ramayan; installed Goddess Saraswathi and seeked her blessing. One can find the marble samadi of Valmiki near the Saraswathi temple.
The temple is an example of the Dravidian architectural splendour. The Garbha gudi or Garbha griha, Gopurams, Prakarams and the like all are sculptured with grandeur. The idol of Goddess Lakshmi is installed along with Goddess Jnana Saraswathi.

The goddess adorns the throne in sitting posture, which is of 4 feet tall.
Another object of attraction is the granite pillar that emits the sound of ‘Saptaswaras’when struck with a stone, drawing visitors’ attention. Another speciality is the tree called ‘Oudumbra’ at the base of which are installed the sacred sandals of Dattatreya’. It is believed that a barren woman is gifted with a child on mere touch of them.

Devotees stream the temple for the ritual of ‘AksharaAbhishekam’ of their children; the formal starting of education deeming it to be auspicious.

The annual festivals of ‘Devi Nava Rathri’, ‘Dattatreya Jayanthi’, and ‘Vasantha Panchami’ are celebrated with utmost dedication and devotion and draws devotees from all parts of the country from all walks of life. A shrine one must visit in one’s lifetime; the abode of Goddess of learning and knowledge is the BASAR Saraswathi temple in the Muthol taluq in the district of Adilabad in Andhra Pradesh.

Chilukuru Balaji Temple

Chilkur Balaji
Hitherto, a sleepy village, Chilkur has come up as a very important pilgrim centre in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India). The Lord here is Sri Venkateswara Swamy in a standing posture, beside whom is Goddess Sridevi and Goddess Bhudevi. It is said that the Lord bears an injury on his chest which is believed to have been made during digging out of the Idol !

History of Chilkur

It is believed that an old man (may be in his 70s-80s), who used to visit Tirumala every year to have darshan of Sri Venkateswara Swamy at Tirumala, once desired to go to Tirumala, Tirupati but could not, because of his old age/some illness. He was very sad for his inability to go to Tirumala because it was also harsher and tiresome those days to travel to Tirumala. The Lord wanted to give him his Darshan and came down to Chilkur. The Lord appeared in the devotee’s dream and told him that he is lying underground in a forest nearby and asked him to excavate his idol so that he may have a bountiful Darshan. The Lord was excavated, along with his consorts, Sridevi and Bhudevi and were installed at the place now called Chilkur.

It is also prevalent among devotees who believe that during the digging out of the Lord, the digging tools hit the Lord’s idol on his chin and on the chest. Suddenly, blood started oozing out of the injuries. The devotees, in a state of shock, heard some voice in the air which asked them to flow cow milk on the injuries. Immediately, the idol of Swamy along with Sridevi and Bhudevi appeared which were later installed in the now-temple premises, after performance of due rites and rituals.

Dakshinas and Pradakshinas

One important feature of this Temple is that there is no Hundi. (Maybe, they come up later on).
The Lord asks His devotees to give him Dakshinas (fees) in shape of Pradakshinas (taking rounds of the temple) only and nothing else! It is widely prevalent among devotees that ‘Chilkuru Balaji’ is ‘Visa Venkanna’ for He is the giver of visa, a passport to go abroad. That is the reason why you will find many youngsters and youth making rounds and rounds the temple all along, all through the week.
The procedure is like this:
Whoever wants to go abroad for higher studies, employment, etc. has to first go to Chilkur and pay obeissance to the Lord and take a vow to pay His dakshina. Then take eleven (11) pradakshinas round the temple and put forth the desire to go abroad. The Lord is prayed during pradakshinas to grant the devotee with a Visa. The devotees, during eleven pradakshinas, vow to take 108 pradakshinas once the Visa is granted. When the Visa paving way to fly abroad is received, the devotee pays his obeissance with the vowed 108 pradakshinas.

Differences between Tirupati Balaji & Chilkur Balaji

The Lord at Tirumala has His consorts, Sridevi and Bhudevi on His bosom (chest) whereas at Chilkur, they stand alongside the Lord.
At Tirumala, you may pay your Dakshinas to the Lord in Hundi or Undiyal whereas Chilkur Balaji is happy with the Devotees’ 108 Pradakshinas

How to reach Chilkur

Chilkuru is around 30 k.m. away from Hyderabad and it takes about one hour to reach the temple. When one comes to Hyderabad/Secunderabad, quite a large number of buses, taxies, auto-three-wheelers, etc. are available from any place. Chilkuru (or Chilkur) is the name of the tiny village where the temple is located. The nearest places from where one can find buses, taxies etc. in the city leading to Chilkur is MEHDIPATNAM or LANGAR HOUSE. Shared three-wheeler/auto charges are somewhere around Rs. 10-12 per person, one way. Bus charges are also in the range of Rs. 9 or so, one way. Travelling from Mehdipatnam takes about 50-60 minutes. Since the village is very nearby to Hyderabad city, coming back to the city by night is recommended for outstation pilgrims.
Places worth visit nearby: Golconda Fort. While going to Chilkuru, one can have a glimpse of the Golconda Fort from a distance.

Dharmapuri, Karimnagar District

The Lord Narasimha is Lord of Dharmapuri.Hindus believe Lakshmi Narasimha to be a half man, half lion form of Vishnu. The story behind this is that the a local being,named Hiranya kashyapa had obtained from God Bramha immunity from attack from “man or beast”. This person then began abusing his powers and began forcing others to worship him, as if he were a God. Among those abused was his own son, Prahlada a staunch worshiper of Vishnu. In order to surmount Bramha’s condition, Vishnu assumed a form that was neither man nor beast, but a combination of both, and then went on to finish off this person with his nails.At that time he was very furious and called as UGRA NARASIMHA and subsequently the saints and Gods prayed him to be cool and Narasimha came to Dharmapuri and undergone a deep meditation with yoga mudra and was called Yoga Narasimha.At the same place a shrine was constructed by then king of Dharmapuri, Dharma Verma by whom the town was called as DHARMAPURI.
It is the place known for temples and artists. is well located on the banks of Holy River Godavary and by virtue of this it is called as Dakshin Kashi.
The presence of the holy river Godavari made dharmapuri a ‘Teertha and Kshetra’.Thousands of devotees visit Godavari everyday to have a holy dip in it to purify themselves from the all the transgressions and sins. The Godavari river flowing towards the south side at dharmapuri and earned Sanctity of being Dakshinabhi Mukha Godavari’.Sarounded by Picturesque stones and sand piles it offers a great pleasure to the visitors besides the divinity.With all these features people often campare it with Sacred River Ganges(GANGA NADI) and calls this river as ‘DAKSHINA GANGA”.

Piligrims besides taking holy bath in this sacred river also uses its premises for ‘SHRADDA KARMAS’ and funeral rituals as per Hindu Culture.They believe that and submerging the ash (Ashtikalu) of the deseased make their soul in attaining sanctity and peace in rest

There are few holy places in the mid of the river called as “Gundams” and piligrims beleive that taking a holy dip in these gundams is sacred one.Amongst these “Gundams” Brahma Gundam,Satyavathi Gundam and Vashista Gundam are ancient and have the historical significance. There are also few shrines such as Sri Dakshinabhumukha Anjaneya Swamy Temple (Hanmandla Gadda) ,Sri Santoshimata Temple Sri Ramalayam ,Sri Dattatreya Temple ,Sri Gautameshwara Temple ,Sri Kanyaka Parameshwari Temple situated on the bank of the Godavari are adding more significance and spirutuality to its presence.

Sri Raja Rajeshwara Swamy, Vemulawada

Sri Raja Rajeshwara Kshetram (holy place) is one of the most sacred spots in the southern part of the India. Vemulawada is situated at about 11 kms to the NorthEast of Sirsilla and 36kms from the Karimnagar on the Karimnagar, KamaReddy bus route.

There are many evidences of inscriptions on stone to provide information of historical, political, religious, cultural and greatness of this holy place. The greatness of this sacred place came with the very existence of Sri Raja Rajeshwara swamy Swayambulingam, which is ancient than the Vemulawada village.

Once upon a time god Indra went to many holy places after he killed Vrithasura and still could not purify his life. Then he took the advice from the guru of gods, Bruhaspathi to visit Sri Raja Rajeshwara kshetram. There he took the holy dip in dharma-gundam and took the blessings of lord Sri Raja Rajeshwara and ruled a golden age of the history. By this ancient story, history gives us the evidence of existence of lord Sri Raja Rajeshwara in Krita yuga.

Another historical story about how the dharma-gundam was built. Once upon a time a king named Sri Raja Raja Narendra came to this place while hunting wild animals. But accidentally he killed a Brahmin boy with an arrow while the boy was drinking water from a pond. Then with the curse of Brahma hatya he got an incurable disease and went on pilgrimage to many holy places and returned back to this place. One day he drank the holy water from the dharma gundam and slept the night praying the lord Sri Raja Rajeshwara Swamy. In his dreams lord shiva asked him, that to take lord’s existence, the lingam from the dharma-gundam and put in a temple.

When the king woke up in the morning he found that his incurable disease got cured. Then he built steps to the dharma gundam and cleaned lord Sri Raja Rajeshwara swamy lingam and built a temple on the hill to keep the lingam inside the temple. But while he was sleeping in the night holy sidhas came and established the gods idol inside the temple. When king was worried about missing the chance to establish the shiva linga, god came in to this dreams and promised that kings name will be associated with the place forever.

It is been said in many mythologies that Sri Raja Rajeshwara Swamy lingam existed in Krita Yuga, Treta Yuga and Dwapara Yuga. And this holy place was visited and praised by many holy persons in Indian ancient history and got never ending importance in holy pilgrimage. Even though the main deity is Lord Shiva at this place, Sri Kodanda Rama Swamy Aalayam, Sri Ananta Padma Nabha Swamy Aalayam are also have the importance from long time for many pilgrims. Because of that reason this place is also called as “ Hari Hara Khestram”.

First of all pilgrims take holy dip in dharma gundam. Then enter the temple from main entrance and visit Bala Rajeshwara and Koti Lingas. Then they proceed further visiting Lord Uma Maheshwara, Lord Someshwara, Goddess Bala Tripura Sundari Devi, Lord Shanmukha, Lord Dakshina Murthy, Lord Chandikeshwara and other deities. Proceed further to visit Nandishwara in the north side of Sri Raja Rajeshwara Temple and enter the main temple from north side. Here pilgrims will find Sri Laxmi Ganapathi statue in north-east part of the temple.Facing south-side is the importance of the Ganapathy statue.
After visiting and offering prayers and abhishekam to Lord Sri Raja Rajeshwara pilgrims proceed further to visit Sri Parvathi Devi. Parvathi Devi statue is located in south side of the temple. The other name of this goddess is “Varaahi”.

After completing prayers at Sri Parvathi Devi, pilgrims visit Sri Parvathi Raja Rajeshwara Swamy and Laxmi Sameta Padmanaba swamy’s festiv idols in the glass house located in the south side of the main temple.

Then devotees visit Sri Ananta padmanabha swamy and Sri Ramachandra swamy temple and take their blessings and come out of it and go around the temple and complete the visit to temple.

Offering Kode (calf) to Sri Raja Rajeshwara Swamy

There is an unique and famous tradition at this devasthanam, which one cannot find in any other temples in India , called “Adde Kodelanu Kattuta (offering rented calfs to swamy)”. The legend for this tradition is very interesting. When Dharma devata did tapassu (to do penance) at southern ocean banks for Lord Shiva. After some time he gave darshan. At that time Dharma devata asked a divine gift, “Vahanamto Bhavishyaami Sadaham Parvathi Pate” (always keep me as your transportation mode). Then Lord Shiva gave her the divine gift by saying “Vaahanam Bhavamedarsha Sarvada Loka Poojitha” (you will always be my transportation mode and also prayed by my devotees). So as per the legend, offering calf (kode) to Sri Raja Rajeshwara Swamy is praying Dharma devata in first place and keeping the legend alive.

Temple Name Deity District
Sri Gnana Saraswati Devastanam(Basara)Goddess SaraswathiAdilabad
Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Devastanam(Kadiri)Sri Lord NarasimhaAnantapur
Sri Nettikanti Anjaneya Swamy Temple (Kasapuram)Sri Lord HanumanAnantapur
Sri Veerabhadra Swamy Temple (Lepakshi)Sri Lord ShivaAnantapur
Umamaheswara GurupeetamUmamaheswara SwamyAnantapur
Sri Erri Swamy MathamSri Erri SwamyAnantapur
Sri Gavimatha SamasthanamSri Lord ShivaAnantapur
Sri Lakshmi Narsimha Swamy Temple(Pennahobilam)Lord Narasimha SwamyAnantapur
Sri Boya Konda Gangamma Devastanam(Diguvapalle)Goddess GangammaChittoor
Sri Ashta Lakshmi sametha Sri Lakshmi Narayana Swamy TemplesSri Lakshmi Narayana SwamyChittoor
Tirumala Tirupati Devastanam(Tirupati)Sri Venkateswara SwamyChittoor
Sri Reddyamma Devatha(Yellampalli village)Sri Reddyamma DevathaChittoor
Sri Kalahasteswara Swamy Devastanam (Sri Kalahasti)Sri Lord ShivaChittoor
Sri Padmavati Devi Temple (Tirupati)Goddess PadmavatiChittoor
Sri Tatayyagunta Gangamma Devastanam(Tirupati)Goddess GangammaChittoor
Swayambhu Sri VarasiddhiVinayaka Swamy Devasthanam(Kanipakam)Sri Vinayaka SwamyChittoor
Sri Govindaraja Swamy Temple (Tirupati)Sri Govinda raja SwamyChittoor
Sri Veera Brahmendra Swamulavari MathSrimad Virat Pothaluru VeCuddapah
Mukti Rameswaram (Proddutur)Lord ShivaCuddapah
Hanumanth Lingeswaralayam (Proddutur)Lord ShivaCuddapah
Devuni Cuddapah Sri Venkateswara TempleSri Venkateswara SwamyCuddapah
Sri Veeranjaneya Swamy DevasthanamSri Veeranjaneya SwamyCuddapah
Sri Vrushabha Chaleswara Swamy DevasthanamSri Vrushabha ChalmeswaraCuddapah
Trikala Ganani Jaganmata Sri Eswari DeviJaganmata Sri Eswari DeviCuddapah
Sri Sri Sri Mandeswara Saneswara Swamy Devastanam (Mandapalle)Sri Lord ShivaE.Godavari
Sri Siddi Vinayaka Swamy Devastanam(Inavalle)Lord GaneshE.Godavari
Sri Badrakali Sametha Veeraswera Swamy Devastanam(Murumulla)Sri Lord ShivaE.Godavari
Sri Uma Kamandaleswar Swamy Devastanam (Ryali)Sri Lord ShivaE.Godavari
Sri Bala Balaji SwamySri Venkateswara SwamyE.Godavari
Sri Uma Markandeya Swamy Devastanam(Rajahmundry)Lord ShivaE.Godavari
Sri Bheemeswara Swamy Devastanam (Draksharamam)Sri Lord ShivaE.Godavari
Sri Bhusametha Sri Venkateswara Swamy Devastanam(Amalapuram)Lord VenkateshwaraE.Godavari
Sri Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Swamy Devastanam(Annavaram)Sri Satyanarayana SwamyE.Godavari
Sri Jagan Mohini Kesava Swamy Devastanam (Ryali)Sri Vishnu & Jagan MohiniE.Godavari
Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple(Chinnavadapalli)Lord VenkateswaraE.Godavari
Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Devastanam(Antervedi)Sri Lord NarasimhaE.Godavari
Sri Amareswara Swamy Devastanam(Amaravati)Sri Lord ShivaGuntur
Sri Venkateswara Swamy TempleSri Venkateswara SwamyGuntur
Sri Maruthi Devalaya SanghamuLord HanumanGuntur
Sri Trikoteswara Swamy Vari DevasthanamSri Trikoteswara SwamyGuntur
Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple( Guntur)Sri Venkateswara SwamyGuntur
Sri Venkateswara Swamy Vari Devasthanam/td>Sri Laxmi Padmavathi SameGuntur
Sri Panakala Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Devastanam(Mangalagiri)Sri Lord NarasimhaGuntur
Sri Bhavanarayana Swamy Vari Devasthanam (Ponnur)Sri Bhavanarayana SwamyGuntur
Brahma Sri Sathghru Jagannatha Swamy Vari AshramBrahma Sri Sathghru JaganGuntur
Sri Jagannadha Swamy Vari TempleSri Jagannadha SwamyGuntur
Sri Malleswara Swamy Temple (Pedda Kakani)Sri Malleswara SwamyGuntur
Sri Sahastra Lingeswara Swamy Vari Devasthanam (Ponnur)Sri Veeranjaneya SwamyGuntur
Sri Anjaneya Swamy TempleSri Anjaneya SwamyGuntur
Sri Shirdi Sai Baba Samasthan TrustSri Shirdi Sai BabaHyderabad
Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy templeSri Lakshmi Narasimha SwaHyderabad
Sri Venkateswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Venkateswara SwamyHyderabad
Sri Venkateswara Perumal Devasthanam(Secunderabad)Sri Venkateswara PerumalHyderabad
Ayyappa Swamy TempleAyyappa SwamyHyderabad
Sri Shiridi Sai Baba TempleSri Shiridi Sai BabaHyderabad
Sri Raja Rajeshwara Swamy Devasthanam ( Vemulavada )Sri Raja Rajeshwara SwamyKarimnagar
Kaleswara Mukteswara Swamy TempleKaleswara Mukteswara SwamyKarimnagar
Sri Balaji Venkateswara Swamy Devasthanam(Annapureddypally)Sri Venkateswara SwamyKhammam
Sri Seeta RamaChandraSri Seeta Rama SwamyKhammam
Sri Venkateshwara Swamy Devastanam(Kandukuru)Sri Venkateshwara SwamyKhammam
Sri Peddammatalli Gudi(Jagannadhapuram)Goddess PeddammatalliKhammam
Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple(Jamalapuram)Lord VenkateswaraKhammam
Sri Durga Maleswara Swamy Temple (Vijayawada)Goddess Kanaka DurgaKrishna
Sri Durga Nageswara Swamy Vari DevasthanamSri Durga Nageswara SwamyKrishna
Sri Nageswara Swamy Temple (Khojjilipet)Sri Nageswara SwamyKrishna
Sri Shyamalamba Ammavari DevasthanamSri Shyamalamba AmmavaruKrishna
Sri Ramalingeswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Ramalingeswara SwamyKrishna
Trishakti PeetamSri Maha Lakshmi, Sri MahKrishna
Sri Venkateswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Venkateswara SwamyKrishna
Sri Kanaka Durga Ammavari TempleSri Kanaka Durga AmmavaruKrishna
Sri Ganga Parvathi Sametha Shambu Lingeswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Ganga Parvathi SamethKrishna
Sri Dasanjaneya Swamy TempleSri Dasanjaneya SwamyKrishna
Sri Brahmaramba Malleswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Brahmarambha MalleswaKrishna
Sri Venkateswara Swamy TempleSri Venkateswara SwamyKrishna
Sri Yogananda Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple (Jaggayyapeta )Sri Yogananda Lakshmi NarKrishna
Sri Kanyaka Parmeswari Ammavari DevasthanamSri Kanyaka Parmeswari AmKrishna
Sri Chandramouleswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Chandramouleswara SwaKrishna
Sridhana Saila Sri Seetha Ramula Vari TempleSridhana Saila Sri SeethaKrishna
Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple (Vijayawada )Sri Venkateswara SwamyKrishna
Sri Venugopal Swamy Vari Devasthanam ( Nemali)Sri Venugopala SwamyKrishna
Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple (Bachchupeta)Sri Venkateswara SwamyKrishna
Sri Tirupatamma Ammavari Devasthanam (Penuganchiprolu)Sri Gopiah Swamy TirupataKrishna
Sri Subramanya Swamy Vari Devasthanam (Mopidevi)Sri Subramanya SwamyKrishna
Sri Subramanyeswara Swamy Vari Devasthanam (Chevurupalem)Sri Subramanya SwamyKrishna
Sri Vasanta Mallikarjuna Swamy Vari DevasthanamSri Vasanta MallikarjunaKrishna
Sri Peddinti Ammavari Temple(Kolleti Kota)Sri Peddinti AmmavaruKrishna
Sri Kakuleswara Swamy Vari Devasthanam(Srikakulam)Sri Kakuleswara SwamyKrishna
Sri Dasanjaneya Swamy Temple (Machavaram)Sri Dasanjaneya SwamyKrishna
Sri Chandra Mauleswara Swamy Vari Devasthanam (Labbipeta)Sri Venkateswara SwamyKrishna
Sri Bramarambha Mallikarjuna Swamy Devastanam (Srisailam)Sri Lord ShivaKurnool
Sri Padmavati Godadevi Sameta Venkateswara Swamy Temple (Dhone)Sri Venkateswara SwamyKurnool
Sri Raghavendra Swamy Devastanam(Mantralayam)Lord RaghavendraKurnool
Sri Varaha Narsimha Swamy Temple (Ahobilam)Sri Lord Narasimha SwamyKurnool
ALAMPUR TEMPLEBrahmeswara SwamyMahaboobnagar
Sri Kurumurthy Srinivas Swamy Temple ( Atmakur )Sri Kurumurthy SrinivasaMahaboobnagar
Beechupalli Anjaneya Swamy TempleLord AnjaneyaMahaboobnagar
Sri Venkateswara Swamy Vari DevasthanamSri Venkateswara SwamyMahaboobnagar
Sri Alivelu Mangamma DevasthanamSri Alivelu MangammaMahaboobnagar
Sri Uttara Ramalingeswara Swamy DevasthanamLord ShivaMahaboobnagar
Sri Laxmi Venkateswara Swamy DevasthanamSri Venkateswara SwamyMahaboobnagar
Sri Kanyaka Parmeswari Ammavari DevasthanamSri Kanyaka Parmeswari AmKrishna
Sri Chandramouleswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Chandramouleswara SwaKrishna
Sridhana Saila Sri Seetha Ramula Vari TempleSridhana Saila Sri SeethaKrishna
Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple (Vijayawada )Sri Venkateswara SwamyKrishna
Sri Venugopal Swamy Vari Devasthanam ( Nemali)Sri Venugopala SwamyKrishna
Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple (Bachchupeta)Sri Venkateswara SwamyKrishna
Sri Tirupatamma Ammavari Devasthanam (Penuganchiprolu)Sri Gopiah Swamy TirupataKrishna
Sri Subramanya Swamy Vari Devasthanam (Mopidevi)Sri Subramanya SwamyKrishna
Sri Subramanyeswara Swamy Vari Devasthanam (Chevurupalem)Sri Subramanya SwamyKrishna
Sri Vasanta Mallikarjuna Swamy Vari DevasthanamSri Vasanta MallikarjunaKrishna
Sri Peddinti Ammavari Temple(Kolleti Kota)Sri Peddinti AmmavaruKrishna
Sri Kakuleswara Swamy Vari Devasthanam(Srikakulam)Sri Kakuleswara SwamyKrishna
Sri Dasanjaneya Swamy Temple (Machavaram)Sri Dasanjaneya SwamyKrishna
Sri Chandra Mauleswara Swamy Vari Devasthanam (Labbipeta)Sri Venkateswara SwamyKrishna
Sri Bramarambha Mallikarjuna Swamy Devastanam (Srisailam)Sri Lord ShivaKurnool
Sri Padmavati Godadevi Sameta Venkateswara Swamy Temple (Dhone)Sri Venkateswara SwamyKurnool
Sri Raghavendra Swamy Devastanam(Mantralayam)Lord RaghavendraKurnool
Sri Varaha Narsimha Swamy Temple (Ahobilam)Sri Lord Narasimha SwamyKurnool
ALAMPUR TEMPLEBrahmeswara SwamyMahaboobnagar
Sri Kurumurthy Srinivas Swamy Temple ( Atmakur )Sri Kurumurthy SrinivasaMahaboobnagar
Beechupalli Anjaneya Swamy TempleLord AnjaneyaMahaboobnagar
Sri Venkateswara Swamy Vari DevasthanamSri Venkateswara SwamyMahaboobnagar
Sri Alivelu Mangamma DevasthanamSri Alivelu MangammaMahaboobnagar
Sri Uttara Ramalingeswara Swamy DevasthanamLord ShivaMahaboobnagar
Sri Laxmi Venkateswara Swamy DevasthanamSri Venkateswara SwamyMahaboobnagar
Sri Venugopala Swamy Devasthanam (Moolapet)Sri Venugopala SwamyNellore
Sri Penusila Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Vari Devasthanam (Gonupalle)Sri Lakshmi Narasimha SwaNellore
Sridevi Bhoodevi Sametha Achyuta Swamyvari Devastanam(Kulluru)Sri Achuta SwamyNellore
GolagamudiSri Nagula Vellutur VenkiNellore
Sri Shiridi Sai SastamSri Shiridi SaiNellore
Sri Veera Anjaneya and Sri Venu Gopala Swamy Vari TempleSri Veera Anjaneya and SrNizamabad
Sri Malayadri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Divya Kshetram (Volelivaripalem)Sri Malayadri Lakshmi NarPrakasham
Nemaligundala Ranganayaka Swamy Vari TempleNemaligundala RanganayakaPrakasham
Sri Balaji TempleSri Venkateswara SwamyRanga Reddy
Sree Sitarama Swamy Temple (Shamshabad)Sree Sitarama SwamyRanga Reddy
Shaneeswara Swamy TempleShaneeswara SwamyRanga Reddy
Sri Ramalingeswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Ramalingeswara SwamyRanga Reddy
Sri Anantha Padmanabha Swami templeSri Anantha Padmanabha SwamiRanga Reddy
Sri Balaji Venkateswara Swami TempleSri Balaji Venkateswara SwamiRanga Reddy
Sri Lakshmi Yogananda Narasimha Swami TempleSri Lakshmi Yogananda Narasimha SwamiRanga Reddy
Sri Kurmananda Swamy Devastanam(Srikakulam)Lord VishnuSrikakulam
Sri Sri Sri Suryanarayana Swamy Devastanam(Arasavalle)Lord Sri SuryaDevaSrikakulam
Sri Pydithalli Ammavari Devastanam(Vijayanagaram)Goddess PyditalliVijayanagaram
Sri Rameshwara Devastanam(Ramatheerdha)Sri RamaVijayanagaram
Sri Kanaka Mahalaxmi Temple(Vizag)Goddess Kanaka MahalaxmiVishakapatnam
Sri Varaha Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Devastanam(Simhachalam)Sri Lord NarasimhaVishakapatnam
Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple(Vizag)Lord VenkateswaraVishakapatnam
Sri Bheemeswara Swamy Devastanam(Bheemavaram)Lord ShivaW.Godavari
Dwaraka Tirumala (Chinna Tirupati)Sri Venkateswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Kota Sattamma Ammavari Temple (Nidadavolu)Sri Kota SattammaW.Godavari
Sri Ksheera Ramalingeswara Swamy Devastanam (Palacole)Sri Lord ShivaW.Godavari
Sri Mavullama Ammavari Temple(Bhimavaram)Goddess MavallamaW.Godavari
Sri Someswara Janardhana Swamy Devastanam(Gunipudi)Lord ShivaW.Godavari
Sri Uma Maheshwara Devastanam(Achanth)Lord ShivaW.Godavari
Sri Ramlaingeswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Ramlaingeswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Kesava Swamy Vari TempleSri Kesava SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Badrakali Sahita Sri Veerabhadra Swamy Vari TempleSri Badrakali Sahita SriW.Godavari
Sri Sivadeva Swamy Vari TempleSri Sivadeva SwamyW.Godavari
Sri SitaRamula Vari TempleSri SitaRama SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Venugopala Swamy Vari TempleSri Venugopala SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Kesava Swamy TempleSri Venkateswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Vasavi Kanyaka Parameswari Temple (Penugonda)Goddess Sri Vasavi KanyakW.Godavari
Sridevi Bhoodevi Aadikesava Swamy Temple (Narsapur)Lord VishnuW.Godavari
Sri Chenna Kesava Swamy TempleSri Chenna Kesava SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Ramalingeswara Swamy TempleSri Ramalingeswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Jwalapahareswara Swamy TempleJwalapahareswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Venkateswara Swamy TempleSri Venkateswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Bheemeswara Swamy TempleSri Bheemeswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Ramalingeswara Swamy TempleSri Ramalingeswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Raja Raja Narendra Swamy TempleSri Raja Raja Narendra SwW.Godavari
Sri Uma Parvathi Devi Sahita Someswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Uma Parvathi Devi SahW.Godavari
Sri Raja Gopala Swamy Vari TempleSri Raja Gopala SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Janardana Swamy Vari TempleSri Janardana SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Malleswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Malleswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Someswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Someswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Chenna Kesava Swamy TempleSri Chenna Kesava SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Malleswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Malleswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Venkateswara Swamy TempleSri Venkateswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Bheemeswara Swamy TempleSri Bheemeswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Venkateswara Swamy TempleSri Venkateswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Dharmalingeswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Dharmalingeswara SwamW.Godavari
Sri Gangeswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Gangeswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Sita Rama Swamy TempleSri Sita Rama SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Sakuleswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Sakuleswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Ramalingeswara Swamy TempleSri Ramalingeswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Daneswari Ammavari TempleSri Daneswari AmmavaruW.Godavari
Sri Rajeswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Rajeswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Kedareswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Kedareswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Kapila Malleswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Kapila Malleswara SwaW.Godavari
Sri Agastyeswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Agastyeswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Someswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Someswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Janardana Swamy Vari TempleSri Janardana SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Parvathi Sahita Sri Visweswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Parvathi Sahita Sri VW.Godavari
Sri Jagannatha Swamy Vari TempleSri Jagannatha SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Rajagopala Swamy Vari TempleSri Rajagopala SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Kapila Malleswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Kapila Malleswara SwaW.Godavari
Sri Madana Gopala Swamy Vari TempleSri Madana Gopala SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Venkateswara Swamy Vari AlayamSri Venkateswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Padmavathi Venkateswara Swamy TempleSri Padmavathi VenkateswaW.Godavari
Sri Uma Bheemeswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Uma Bheemeswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Siddeswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Siddeswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Venugopala Swamy Vari TempleSri Venugopala SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Anjaneya Swamy Vari TempleSri Anjaneya SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Subramanyeswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Subramanyeswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Visveswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Visveswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Sita Ramachandra Swamy Vari TempleSri Sita Ramachandra SwamW.Godavari
Sri Uma Vasuki Ravi Someswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Uma Vasuki Ravi SomesW.Godavari
Sri Madana Gopala Swamy Vari TempleSri Madana Gopala SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Madana Gopala Swamy Vari TempleSri Madana Gopala SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Kesava Swamy Vari TempleSri Kesava Swamy Vari TemW.Godavari
Sri Bala Tripura Sundari Sametha Ramalingeswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Bala Tripura SundariW.Godavari
Sri Golingeswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Golingeswara SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Nangalya Devi TempleSri Nangalya DeviW.Godavari
Sri Varada Gopala Swamy Vari TempleSri Varada Gopala SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Ananta Bhogeswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Ananta Bhogeswara SwaW.Godavari
Sri Madana Gopala Swamy Vari TempleSri Madana Gopala SwamyW.Godavari
Sri Prasanna Anjaneya Swamy Vari TempleSri Prasanna Anjaneya SwaW.Godavari
Sri Alaha Singarappa Swamy Vari TempleSri Alaha Singarappa SwamW.Godavari
Sri Kashi Visweswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Kashi Visweswara SwamW.Godavari
Sri Vasu Vari TempleSri VasuW.Godavari
Sri Janardhana Kanyaka Parameswari Vari TempleSri Janardhana Kanyaka PaW.Godavari
Sri Annapurna Sametha Pratapa Visweswara Swamy Vari TempleSri Annapurna Sametha PraW.Godavari
Sri Seetha Rama Swamy Vari TempleSri Seetha Rama Swamy VarW.Godavari
Sri Rudreshwara Swamy Vari (Thousand Pillars) TempleSri Rudreshwara SwamyWarangal
Someswara Laxmi Narasimha Swamy TempleSomeswara Laxmi NarasimhaWarangal
sri palakurthy someswara lakshmi narasimha swamy templeSri Palakurthy Someswara Lakshmi Narasimha SwamyWarangal
Sl.No.NameFrom To
1Sri Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy 01/11/195611/01/1960
2Sri Damodaram Sanjivayya11/01/196012/03/1962
3Dr. Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy12/03/196229/02/1964
4Sri Kasu Bramhananda Reddy 29/02/196430/09/1971
5Sri Pamulaparti V. Narasimha Rao30/09/197110/01/1973
President's rule10/10/197310/12/1973
6Sri Jalagam Vengala Rao10/12/197306/03/1978
7Dr. Marri Chenna Reddy06/03/197811/10/1980
8Sri Tanguturi Anjaiah11/10/198024/02/1982
9Sri Bhavanam Venkataram24/02/198220/09/1982
10Sri Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy09/01/198209/01/1983
11Sri Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao09/01/198316/08/1984
12Sri Nadella Bhaskara rao16/08/198416/09/1984
13Sri Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao16/09/198409/03/1985
14Sri Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao09/03/198503/12/1989
15Dr. Marri Chenna Reddy03/12/198917/12/1990
16Sri Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy17/12/199009/10/1992
17Sri Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy09/10/199212/12/1994
18Sri Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao12/12/199401/09/1995
19Sri Nara Chandra Babu Naidu01/09/199511/05/2004
20Dr Yeduguri Sandinti Rajasekhara Reddy11/05/200402/09/2009
21Sri Konijeti Rosaiah03/09/200924/11/2010
22Sri Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy25/11/201001/03/2014
President rule01/03/201408/06/2014

Sri Nara Chandra Babu Naidu
08/06/2014 to Incumbent

Mr. N. Chandrababu Naidu, was born in Naravaripally village of Chittoor district on April 20, 1950. His late father Sri N.K. Naidu was an agriculturist and his mother Smt. Ammanamma is a housewife. Mr. Naidu had his school education in Chandragiri and his college education at the Sri Venkateswara Arts College, Tirupati. He did his Masters in Economics from the Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati. He was doing research for a Ph.D. degree at the same university, when he took to politics.
Mr. Naidu has been active in politics since his student days. He held various positions in his college and organized a number of social activities. Following the 1977 cyclone, which devastated Diviseema taluk of Krishna district, he actively organized donations and relief material from Chittoor district for the cyclone victims. Mr. Naidu has been evincing keen interest in rural development activities in general and, the upliftment of the poor and downtrodden sections of society in particular.

Mr.Naidu was elected to the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly in 1978 from Chandragiri constituency in Chittoor district. He served as a Director of the A.P. Small Scale Industries Development Corporation for some time. He subsequently became a Minister and held the portfolios of Archives, Cinematography, Technical Education, Animal Husbandry, Dairy Development, Public Libraries and Minor Irrigation between 1980 and 1983. He also served as the Chairman of the State Karshak Parishad, constituted for the first time to look after the welfare of the farming community.

Mr. Naidu was the General Secretary of Telugu Desam Party since 1985, in which capacity he was instrumental in building up an effective party organization from the grass roots. He was the moving force for designing and organizing large scale multifaceted training programmes for party functionaries.

He was elected again to the State Legislature from Kuppam constituency of Chittoor district in 1989. He served as Coordinator of the Telugu Desam Party, in which capacity he effectively handled the party’s role of main opposition in the assembly which won him wide appreciation from both the party and the public. His role during this phase both inside the legislative assembly and outside was a critical factor for the subsequent success of the party at the hustings.

In 1994, he was reelected to the Assembly from Kuppam constituency with a large majority of 57,000 votes and held the important portfolios of Revenue and Finance. During this tenure Mr. Naidu systematically introduced transparency in Government, thus breaking the tradition of inordinate secrecy in the Finance department.

The mantle of leadership fell on the shoulders of Mr. Naidu at a most critical juncture in the State’s politics. Following a popular upsurge in the party Mr. Naidu, was unanimously elected as the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh on 1st September 1995.

Following the elections to the State assembly wherein the Telugu Desam Party led by
Mr.N. Chandrababu Naidu emerged as a winner, he was sworn in on the 11th of October,1999 as the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh for the second term. He was elected with a majority of more than 65,000 votes.

The Chief Minister has a modern outlook to administration. His style of functioning is more akin to that of a CEO as compared to a traditional politician. The Chief Minister has a firm conviction that modern technology should be used in the service of the common man. Consequently, he has been laying great emphasis on the use of modern information technology in Government. He would like the State to be run professionally as an efficient organization rather than as a bureaucracy saddled with red-tape.

The Chief Minister’s vision for the future includes multidimensional development of all citizens of the State. He is keen to develop the full potential of all citizens based on a strong moral foundation. The Chief Minister has been propagating a return to ethical and value based precepts in day to day life. In keeping with this commitment, he has launched new initiatives, like the Janmabhoomi programme which aims at achieving excellence in all walks of life and focuses on community building through team work.

In order to achieve greater involvement of the people in the implementation of Government programmes, the Chief Minister has been encouraging the concept of social audit, which involves making information available to all citizens about the works being taken up with public funds in their area. The Chief Minister has also taken the initiative for setting up self help groups like Water users’ associations, for involving farmers in the management of irrigation systems. Other self help groups like Watershed Development Committees, Womens’ groups, Youth groups, Village Education Committees and Village Health Committees have also been set up. These self help groups have significantly contributed to removing intermediaries and have been widely acknowledged for improving the condition of the poor.

The Chief Minister has initiated an exercise to define the Vision 2020 for the state. According to the Chief Minister, “Our vision of Andhra Pradesh is a State where poverty is totally eradicated; where every man, woman and child has access to not just the basic minimum needs, but to all the opportunities for leading a happy and fulfilling life; a knowledge and learning society built on the values of hard work, honesty, discipline and a collective sense of purpose.” This vision reflects the Chief Minister’s forward looking perspective on the state’s development, and the details of the vision are proposed to be fine tuned in consultation with the people on a continuing basis.

The Chief Minister is undertaking administrative reforms in right earnest and would like to emphasise as much on processes of ‘transformating’ as on ‘informating’ within Government. As part of the Administrative Reforms, the Chief Minister would like to use Information Technology for providing better quality of governance for the common man.

At the Chief Minister’s initiative, a State Wide Area Network has been set up linking State Secretariat and all the district Collectorates using fibre optic networks. This is being used for purposes of video conferencing, training and live demonstrations. Campus Area network in the Secretariat and local Area Networks in various government offices at different locations will be linked to APSWAN.

An Executive Information System for monitoring the progress of various governmental programmes has been set up in the Chief Minister’s Office. The information is now being fine-tuned and expanded to cover more details and a large number of subject areas. Geographical Information System (GIS) applications for the road network in the State, the Irrigation and Drainage System, Forestry and Wasteland development are also under implementation.

The Chief Minister is keen to set up distributed data warehouses in different government departments as part of a Governmental Intranet. The Chief Minister feels that the Internet technology holds immense potential for the future and should be used to provide high quality service to the citizen. It is therefore contemplated that all information relevant to the citizen should be made available on electronic networks. This will ensure ‘one-stop’ ‘non-stop’ information to all citizens. As part of his vision for Information Technology the Government of Andhra Pradesh is moving towards the concept of paper-less offices using workflow concepts and enterprise wide computing. The Government of Andhra Pradesh is in the process of setting up a unified portal and is expanding on a pilot project called TWINS (Twin cities Integrated Network Services) for providing one stop services. With this, multiple citizen services like payment of bills, registration of births and deaths, issuance of licenses will be provided in a convenient manner.

At the Chief Minister’s behest, the computerisation of the registration department covering 214 sub-registrars offices has been completed. This computerisation will enable citizens to access services in a fraction of the time previously taken. For example, registration of a land sale that previously used to take one week, can now be accomplished in less than one hour.

In recognition of the Chief Minister’s leadership and vision in the field of Information technology, Mr.Naidu was designated as the Co-chairperson of the National Task Force on Information technology set up by the Government of India to prepare the IT road map for the future. The Chief Minister in his capacity as the Co-chairperson of the National Task Force, has taken a number of initiatives for dismantling the monopoly in the telecommunications sector and for promoting the use of Information technology for common citizens. The stellar role played by the Chief Minister in promoting Information technology for better governance has been widely recognised, both within and outside the country.

When the Chief Minister took over in 1995, the State’s finances were in very poor shape. Following the initiatives launched by the Chief Minister, there has been a remarkable improvement in the State’s economic performance.

The Chief Minister is a firm believer in accountability of the Government and has taken steps to systematically incorporate accountability as an intrinsic feature of Government’s functioning.

The Chief Minister would like to achieve tangible results in a short time frame. His working hours extend from 6.30 in the morning to late into night. During this period, the Chief Minister devotes a significant portion of his time for meeting a large number of common citizens and addressing their problems and concerns. A grievance cell has been set up in the Chief Minister’s Office for monitoring the redressal of public grievances. The Chief Minister’s itinerary also includes surprise visits to the districts which are aimed at keeping administration on its toes. These visits are directed at curbing administrative corruption and lethargy.

The decision making within the government has been expedited by making effective use of communication by the Chief Minister. For example, a videoconferencing unit enables the Chief Minister to simultaneously address all District Collectors or consult the Cabinet ministers on various issues. The Chief Minister has been conducting videoconferences with Collectors on various issues like the power situation, clean and green programme, rythu bazaars, monitoring of prices, implementation of road works, sanitation and public health, law and order etc. The system has been extremely effective in overcoming the routine bureaucratic delays in the course of responding to issues of immediate public concern during these videoconferences.

The Chief Minister is well known for innovative concepts and programmes. The “Dial your Chief Minister” programme, telecast by the Doordarshan Kendra of Hyderabad is one such programme which is telecast every Monday. The Chief Minister addresses the citizens over a large number of issues. A subject is identified for the week and the citizens come up with their problems and communicate it to the Chief Minister . The “Dial your Chief Minister” programme is a very popular one with citizens and the viewership of the programme is rated very high.

The Chief Minster has laid a lot of emphasis on water conservation and water harvesting. He has taken up a campaign for sensitising the people of the State and the administration for better management of water to prevent drought situation in the future. Launching of an innovative programme called “Neeru Meeru”, formation of Watershed Committees, promotion of Water Shed development have all been taken up in the State for better management of water on the insistence of the Chief Minister. Water Conservation Mission has been formed as a step in this direction. Inspired by his efforts there has been a voluntary participatory movement amongst the citizens of the State towards water conservation. A number of households have built rain water-harvesting structures towards this cause.

Mr. Chandrababu Naidu has drawn attention and has concentrated on evolving a new way looking at Centre State fnance relations. He has spearheaded the campaign for fiscal federalism in the wake of the recommendations of the Eleventh Finance Commission. He has emphasised on equity and efficiency in the devolution of Central revenues and sharing of resources between the Centre and the States.

The Chief Minister was awarded “The Business Person of the Year” award in the year 1998, by the Economic Times. The award recognised the progressive policies pursued by the Chief Minister. While presenting the award, the citation mentioned that “it is a vote for reform, for a politician who means business and sees himself as a Chief Executive and his people as shareholders”.

When World Link magazine of the World Economic Forum, decided to pick a dream cabinet of political leaders in the year 1998, it selected 15 truly outstanding leaders after consultations with various experts. Since political leadership was not necessarily confined to national governments, they also looked at successful regional leaders and pan regional institutions. Mr. N.Chandrababu Naidu, Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh who made the grade to World Link’s dream cabinet shared the honours with the British Prime Minister, Mr. Tony Blair; Iranian President, Mr. Mohammed Khatami and Foreign Minister of New Zealand, Don McKinnon among others.

The Chief Minister, Mr. N. Chandrababu Naidu was given the “IT man of the year” award by the Computer World in the year 1999, for his vision and contributions in harnessing IT for improving the lives of common citizens.

The Chief Minister has been voted as the “IT Indian of the Millennium”, in the year 1999, in a poll conducted by a leading weekly magazine, ‘India Today’. Mr.N.Chandrababu Naidu was the only politician to be so preferred by the voters.

The Chief Minister has been declared as the South Asian of the Year, 1999 by the Time Asia magazine.

The Chief Minister has been chosen as one of 50 leaders at the forefront of change in the year 2000 by the Business Week magazine for being an unflinching proponent of technology and his drive to transform the State.

The Chief Minister is married to Mrs. Bhuvaneswari and has a son Lokesh. His father-in-law the late Mr. N.T.Rama Rao was one of the most accomplished film actors of Telugu cinema, who later founded the Telugu Desam Party and was also the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh.

What they have to say:

“In Andhra Pradesh in India, a state of 70 million people, the Chief Minister has a programme for 2020. A programme for literacy, for improved access to health care, for livelihoods, empowering women, developing backward areas, creating safety nets — a programme with clearly monitorable targets that can be regularly checked”- Mr.James Wolfensohn, President -The World Bank, (Oct 6, 1998) .

“Chandrababu Naidu, the visionary chief minister of Andhra Pradesh, is trying to make government more transparent and responsive by making it electronic …….The sort of revolution Mr. Naidu is aiming for in Andhra Pradesh – a managerial, not an ideological one – is exactly what India needs”-The Economist, ( May 22,1999) .

“Chandrababu Naidu has pioneered people centred development process in the State which is designed to make the government sensitive to the needs of the smallest village and galvanise government officials into tackling them”- ‘The Independent, London, (Sep 28,1999).

“As India’s states become increasingly important in the drive for the economic growth that is needed to pull hundreds of millions of Indians out of poverty, state leaders like Naidu are at the vanguard of efforts to modernize local economies and integrate them into the global marketplace” – New York Times, (Sep 10, 1999) .

“In just five years, he has turned an impoverished, rural backwater into India’s new information-technology hub .More than that, he has shaken up the state’s moribund administration into the most efficient civil service in South Asia. “- Time Asia, ( 31 Dec 1999)

” Naidu has emerged as a symbol of reform not just for Andhra, but for all Indians eager to replace the politics of populism and patronage with a new mantra of economic growth and efficient governance… the ripples from the Andhra experiment will be felt all over the country”- The Far Eastern Economic Review, (Jan 20, 2000)

“N. Chandrababu Naidu, the 49-year-old chief minister of the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, emerged from October’s polls with unique stature. His ambitious and internationally-backed reform programme (and enthusiasm for “e-governance”) confounded the pundits and triumphed over the populist bribes which are the staple of Indian elections”- Financial Times, (Jan 31,2000)

“Again, I want to say that I think Chief Minister Naidu deserves a lot of credit for giving you the right kind of governance” – Mr. William Jefferson Clinton – US President (Mar 24, 2000)

“N. Chandrababu Naidu is an unflinching proponent of technology and what it can do for a poor country like India…………In his five years running Andhra Pradesh, Naidu, 50, has used his decisiveness and drive to transform the state”- Business Week (July 3, 2000)

“For the last five years the chief minister of this mainly rural state has tried to lift its 80 million inhabitants by using information technology and by following the economic model of East Asia’s success stories………..The world is watching Mr. Naidu and his experiment, waiting to learn whether a state larger in population than most Southeast Asian countries, heavily reliant on farming and light industry, can leapfrog the traditional path to development by focusing on software and the Internet…So far, many of the early results of Mr. Naidu’s experiment are encouraging. ” – Herald Tribune (Aug 30, 2000)

“He is a politician who has been voted the country’s best CEO. He has catapulted his state from the backwaters of the old economy to the cutting edge of the new. He has transformed his sleepy capital city into snazzy showcase of high technology.”- Times of India ( Oct 12, 2000).

More about Mr Chandra Babu Naidu Nara

  • Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao
  • P.V. Narasimha Rao
  • L. V. Prasad
  • Suravaram Pratapareddy
  • Gurram Jashuva
  • Dr. Yellapragada Subba Row
  • Sri Potuluri Veera Brahmendra Swami
  • Sri Sri
  • Potti Sreeramulu
  • Tripuraneni Ramaswamy
  • Bammera Potana
  • Dasaradhi
  • Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao
  • Alluri Sitaramaraju
  • Ballari Raghava
  • Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu
  • Dr C Narayana Reddy
  • Durgabai Deshmukh
  • Shyam Benegal
  • Kancherla Gopanna
  • Dr.Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
  • Vishwanadha Satyanarayana
  • Maadapaati Hanumantharao
  • Yogi Vemana
  • Pingali Venkayya
  • Gurajada Apparao

The history of East Godavari district like the rest of Andhra, may be traced to the period of the Nandas. Mahapadma Nanda, the founder of the Nanda dynasty, led expeditions and defeated several monarchs of the north and the Deccan, thus making the Nandas monarchs of a large portion of the Deccan. The subsequent history of Nanda dynasty is not known, except that, the last ruler Dhana Nanda was overthrown by Chandragupta Maurya in 322 B.C.
Thus, Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Mauryan dynasty resumed control over the empire which included a large portion of the Deccan. He was succeeded by his son, Bindusara (297-272 B.C). Bindusara was succeeded to the throne by Asoka.

After the Mauryas, the district passed under the rule of the Satavahanas. The sucess of Hala in about 6 or 7 A.D. lasted for only one year. Though there were no events of political importance during his reign, he won for himself a niche among the great poets of all time. The rule of Gautamiputra Satakarni (A.D.128-157) is evident from the coins found during excavations. The Satavahanas appear to have ruled till the first quarter of the third century A.D.

Samudragupta, the Gupta ruler, who invaded this district in A.D.350 came into conflict with the rulers of both Pishtapura and Avamukta. The local rulers joined the rulers of neighbouring lands to resist the onslaughts of the Gupta ruler. However, the outcome of this united opposition is not known.

Samudragupta’s invasion was followed by the rule of a line of kings belonging to Matharakula. Their rule extended roughly from 375 A.D. to 500 A.D. The earliest known ruler of the dynasty was Maharaja Sakivarman. The district passed into the hands of Vishnukundin during the rule of Vikramendravarama 1. They ruled for over two centuries from the first quarter of the 5th century A.D. or a little earlier. The records discovered indicate that their dominion extended over Visakhapatnam, West Godavari, Krishna and Guntur, besides the present East Godavari district. Ranadurjaya, a member of the Durjaya family, ruled Pistapuram or Pithapuram as a vassal of Vikramendravarma in recognition of his services to the State. Another Vishnukundin, ruler of Indrabhattaraka, defeated the rulers of Vasishtakula and re-established his authority over this region. His success was, however, short lived. The early reigns of kalinga with the support of some petty rulers, completely routed Indrabhattaraka’s army. This resulted in the Vishnukundin’s power suffering a severe setback. Indrabhattaraka was followed to the throne by a few others belonging to the same family. Madhavarama III was the last important ruler of this family. Madhavarama III was, however, killed in a battle. He was succeeded by his son, Manchannabhattaraka who strove hard to maintain his hold over the ancestral domain without much success.

Later, the western Chalukya ruler of Badami Pulakesin II, with the help of his brother Kubjavishnu, attacked Pistapura and emerged victorious. Kubjavishnu was given the newly acquired territories in the east in token of appreciation of the service rendered by him.

The rulers of eastern Chalukya dynasty founded by Kubjavishnu, ruled at first from Pistapura, then from Vengi and later from Rajamahendri (Rajahmundry). Many rulers held sway over the kingdom and their history is, at times, largely a record of disputes about succession.

Chalukya Bhima I, who ruled during A.D. 892-921, built a temple in honour of Siva at Draksharama. In the subsequent period which marked a civil war for power, Amma I, son of Vijayaditya IV, came out victorious and ruled the Kingdom for seven years. He was ousted from power within a fortnight of his succession. He was compelled to take refuge in the fort of Pithapuram, where he founded a dynasty.

In 973 A.D. the eastern Chalukya ruler, Danarnava, was killed and Vengi was occupied by Jata Choda Bhima of Pedakallu in Kurnool district who ruled for 27 years. The two sons of Danarnava, Saktivarman I and Vimaladitya fled from the Kingdom and took refuge in the court of the Chola King Rajaraja I (A.D.985-1016). Kundavai, the daughter of Rajaraja was married to Vimaladitya, the younger of the two princes. Rajaraja invaded Vengi on behalf of the sons of Danarnava. In this war, Jata Choda Bhima was killed and Vengi passed into the hands of Rajaraja. This was not liked by Satyasraya, an early ruler of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani. As a result of this, Vengi became the bone of contention between the Cholas and Chalukyas of Kalyani to the west. The rule of Vijayaditya VII, the last king of the eastern Chalukya dynasty, witnessed an invasion of the Vengi kingdom by the Chedi King of Dahala, Yasahkarnadeva in A.D.1073. Vijayaditya VII lost his kingdom and with his death in A.D.1075 the eastern Chalukya dynasty came to an end.

With the accession of Rajendra under the title of Kulottunga I, an eastern Chalukyan prince and a rival of Vijayaditya VII, to the Chola throne, this district along with the rest of the Vengi kingdom became a province of the Chola empire. These rulers were known as Chalukya-Cholas. Kulottunga I appointed his sons Rajaraja Mummadi Choda, Vira Choda, Rajaraja Choda Ganga and Vikrama Chola, as his viceroys in Vengi. Vikrama Chola was called back to the south in the same year as the administration of the major portion of this district by Velanadu chiefs was not effective. This gave an opportunity to the western Chalukya ruler, Vikramaditya VI to reduce the Velanadu chief to subjection. Someswara III succeeded Vikramaditya VI. On the Chola throne, Vikrama Chola was followed by Kulottunga II and Rajaraja II and Rajadhiraja in succession. During the reign of Rajadhiraja II, the Velanadu rulers became more independent and entertained plans of aggrandisement. A major portion of the district was also ruled by a local dynasty known as Velanati Cholas. The other rulers of this dynasty were Gonka I, Gonka II, Kulottunga Rajendra Chola I and Kulottunga Rajendra Chola – II (A.D.1108-1181).

The Haihayas of Kona and the eastern Chalukyas of Pithapuram took advantage of the death of Gonka II and asserted their independence. But Kulottunga Rajendra Chola II who succeeded Gonka II, despatched an army headed by his minister Amritaluri Devana Preggada who defeated the Kona chief and reduced them to subjection. Subsequently, proliya Preggada, the Commander-in-chief of Kulottunga Rajendra Chola II conquered the eastern Chalukya princes. Kulottunga Rajendra Chola II also came into conflict with the Kakatiya ruler Rudra. Thus, the power of Velanadu chiefs reached glorious heights and the entire coastal Andhra came under their rule.

The sudden demise of Kulottunga Rajendra Chola II in A.D.1181 led to the outbreak of a civil war among the heirs of Kulottunga Rajendra Chola for the possession of the throne. With this, the rule of Velanati Chola over this district ended.

An early ruler of Kakatiya dynasty Prola-II threw off the Imperial Yoke of the western Chalukyas of Kalyani and asserted his independence. During his reign, he was opposed by the Haihayas of Kona. Prola II was succeeded by his son Rudra (A.D.1150-1195), who obtained the Godavari delta as a bief from the Chalukya Chola emperor Rajaraja II and attempted to avenge the defeat of his father at the hands Haihayas of Kona. The epigraph at Draksharama dated A.D.1158 is an evidence of this. Rudra’s authority over the Godavari delta was challenged by the Velanadu Cholas. The Velanati Chief, Julottunga Rajendra Chola-II sent an army against Rudra. The minister of Rajendra Chola-II, Devana Preggada is said to have first reduced the territory bordering the sea and established himself at Draksharama in A.D.1163 and then advanced on the Haihayas of Kona and having defeated them, he compelled them to acknowledge the supremacy of his sovereign. However, Rudra does not seem to have left them in peaceful possession of this area.

On the death of the Chalukya Chola emperor Rajaraja II in A.D.1172, Kulottunga Rajendra Chola II took advantage of the breakdown of the imperial power and made himself the master of the whole of the maritime region. He, however, died unexpectedly and the power of the Velanadu Cholas suffered a setback.

Rudra was succeeded by his younger brother Mahadeva who died in a conflict with the yadavas of Devagiri. His son Ganapati succeeded to the Kakatiya throne. He conquered Divi in Krishna district. Ganapati successfully sent an army to Kalinga to reduce it to subjection. The eastern Ganga ruler Aniyanka Bhima III and his son Narasimha I Ganapati sent an army across the northern side of Godavari, where a great battle was fought and the enemy was forced to a hasty retreat. In a conflict with the Pandyas defeat on them and compelled their ally Kopperunjinga to acknowledge his suzerainty. As a result of this victory, the Kakatiya power remained undisturbed in the Godavari valley until the end of the reign of Ganapati.

Ganapati was succeeded by his daughter Rudramba (A.D.1259-95). During the latter part of her reign, the whole of Godavari valley appears to have come in full under her sway and remained under her control till the end of her reign. Prataparudra ascended, the throne in A.D.1295. His reign faced many invasions by the Sultan of Delhi. In A.D.1323, he was defeated by Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq and was sent as a prisoner to Delhi. With this, the district along with the remaining Kakatiya dominion passed into the hands of the Delhi Sultans.

Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq divided the Deccan and the South India into five provinces and entrusted the job of administering them to the governors. The rule of the governors, however, became unpopular. All the Nayakas living therein formed a confederacy and Prolaya Nayaka of Musunuri family, was chosen leader of the confederates. As a result of these rebellions, Kingdoms of the Reddis of Kondaveedu, the Rayas of Vijayanagara, the Recherlas of Rachakonda, the Bahmanis of Gulbarga and that of the Musunuri chiefs of Warangal came to be established and Prolaya Nayaka became the undisputed leader of Coastal Andhra. After his death Kapaya Nayaka, a cousin of Prolaya Nayaka, succeeded him as the leader of the chiefs of the coastal tract. Kapaya Nayaka’s leadership was not able to inculcate a sense of oneness amongst the chiefs, who started acting in an independent manner. Therefore, Kapaya Nayaka entrusted the administration of this region to Toyyeti Anavota Nayaka who ruledover it with Rajahmundry as his headquarters. For sometime, after the death of Anavota Nayaka in A.D.1364, Rajahmundry and he region on the Eastern bank of the Godavari was without a ruler. The Manchikonda and Narasimhadeva IV of Kalinga tried to take advantage of the disturbed political situation. Though, they succeeded in conquering this region, it did not remain in their hold for long, as the Reddi ruler, Anavota succeeded in capturing the throne. He was succeeded by Anavema Reddi (A.D.1364-86), who in turn was succeeded by Kumaragiri (A.D.1386). Kumaragiri fought many wars with the Recherlas of Rachakonda and the Kalinga rulers. He sent his general Kataya Vema along with Prince Anavota to conquer the eastern region. This resulted in the annexation of a large tract in the north as far as Simhachalam. The newly acquired territory was annexed to the Reddi Kingdom and constituted into a separate province called the eastern Kingdom or the Rajamahendra Rajya. Prince Anavota ruled this province with Rajamahendravaram as his capital. He died a premature death around A.D.1395 and Kataya Vema, the general and brother-in-law of Kumaragiri was given Rajamahendra Rajya, in appreciation of the services rendered by him to the State, Kataya Vema’s departure to Rajamahendravaram led to the seizure of the throne of Kondaveedu by force by Peda Komati Vema.

Peda Komati Vema’s authority was defined by Kataya Vema. Kataya Vema was also involved in a conflict with the Eruva Chief, Annadeva Choda who managed to occupy a large portion of the Rajamahendra Rajya. He was, however, defeated and driven back by Kataya Vema. Later, Kataya Vema died in a battle with Annadeva Choda. After his death, Allada Reddi placed Kataya Vema’s son Komaragiri on the throne of Rajamahendravaram and ruled the Kingdom as his regent. Komaragiri died a premature death. Allada Reddi ruled this region till his death in A.D.1420. About 1423 A.D., the Vijayanagar ruler Devaraya-II defeated Virabhadra, who was then ruling this Kingdom and reduced it to subjection.

At Kondaveedu, Racha Vema succeeded Peda Komati Vema to the throne. His rule was very oppressive and therefore, he received little support from his subjects, when the Gajapatis of Orissa and the Rayas of Vijayanagar invaded the Kingdom. Kapileswara Gajapati crushed the Reddi power and annexed the Rajamahendra Rajya to his dominion.

About this period, a dynasty of feudatory chiefs known as Virasamantas of Koppula chiefs, came into prominence. After the downfall of the Kakatiyas of Warangal, a minor dynasty known as of the chiefs of Korukonda rose to power. The historical origin of this family is not known. These chiefs became strong in due course and entered into matrimonial alliance with their powerful neighbours. Mummadi Nayaka of this family was thus married to the niece of the Musunuri chief, Kapaya Nayaka. He conquered the coastal region held earlier by Toyyeti Anavota Nayaka. He is believed to have further brought under subjection the kingdoms of panara, Kona, Kuravata and others lying on either side of the Godavari. Mummadi Nayaka lived till 1388 A.D. He had three sons who ruled for a period of 40 years and later they were reduced to submission by the Reddies of Kondaveedu and their principality was merged in the kingdom of Kondaveedu.

After the death of Kapileswara Gajapati in A.D.1470, there was a fight between his son Hamvira and Purushottama for succession. Hamvira succeeded in occupying the throne with the help of the Bahmanis but he could not retain it for long. Purushottama overthrew Hamvira and tried to reconquer Rajahmundry and other places. But Muhammad Shah III led the forces to Rajahmundry. This battle, however, ended with the conclusion of peace treaty. But after the death of Muhammad Shah III Purushottama Gajapati overran the whole of the Godavari Krishna doab and drove away the Bahmani forces as far south as Kondaveedu. Purushottama was succeeded by his son Prataparudra. The Vijayanagar monarch Krishnadevaraya invaded his kingdom and brought Rajahmundry under subjection. However, a treaty was concluded wherein Prataparudra agreed to give his daughter in marriage to Krishnadevaraya in return of the territory north of the Krishna conquered by Krishnadevaraya.

Taking advantage of the disturbed conditions, the Qutb Shahi ruler, Sultan Quli Autb Shah, invaded the coastal region and took possession of Rajahmundry and the neighbouring kingdoms. Sultan Quil was murdered and he was succeeded to the throne by his son Jamshid Qutb Shah and then by his grandson Subhan Qutb Shah. During his reign Ibrahim Qutb Shah had toward off challenges from Shitab Khan and Vidyadhar. The last ruler of this dynasty was Abdul Hassan Tana Shah who ruled during 1672-87 A.D.

About this period, the Mughal power started spreading to the south. The district of East Godavari was then included in Golconda, which had become one of the twenty-two provinces of the Mughal Empire. The Mughal emperor Aurangazeb appoined viceroys to carry out the administration of these provinces. The viceroy of Golconda looked after the administration through military officers called Fauzdars. The Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar appointed Nizam-ul-Mulk as the viceroy of the Deccan. He was, however, replaced by Husain Ali Khan, and during the time of Muhammad Shah, Nizam-ul-Mulk invaded the Deccan, defeated and killed Mubariz Khan in the battle of Shakar Khera in 1724 and ruled the Deccan in an autonomous capacity.

Nizam-ul-Mulk’s death in 1748 A.D. led to a war of succession between his son Nasir Jung and his grandson Muzaffar Jung. The French and the English took different sides each. The dispute ended with the accession of Salabat Jung, with the help of the French General Bussy. General Bussy was, however, summoned to the south by lally, the new Governor-General of the French possessions in India. As soon as he left, Ananda Raju, the new raja of Vizianagaram, invited the English to come and occupy the Northern Circars. The tussle that ensued between the French and the English ended with the French loosing all possessions in Northern Circars.

Salabat Jung was subsequently deposed by his brother Nizam Ali Khan who leased out Rajahmundry and Chicacole Hasan Ali Khan. Lord Clive, entered into negotiations for the ceding of the Northern Circars and obtained a Firman to that effect in August 1765, but it was kept a secret till March, 1766. General Caillaud was sent to Machilipatnam to undertake military operations, if necessary. The Nizam also made brisk preparations for war. It was, however, prevented with the conclusion of a treaty whereby the English agreed to hold the Northern Circars on payment of a tribute, accepting at the same time to furnish the Nizam with some troops. This treaty was confirmed by another treaty in 1768. Hasan Ali Khan’s lease expired in A.D. 1769 and Rajahmundry and Eluru came under the control of the newly constituted chief and council at Machilipatnam.

The Zamindars came into prominence during the period preceding the transfer of the district to the English. The Zamindars of Rampa, Peddapuram, Pithapuram, Kota and Ramachandrapuram were the important Zamindars of this region.

ItemUnit of MeasureFigureSource
AreaSq.km.10807Census 2001
PopulationIn Thousands4872.62"
MaleIn Thousands2445.81"
FemaleIn Thousands2426.81"
UrbanIn Thousands1136.71"
RuralIn Thousands3735.90"
Population Growth (decadal)%+7.30"
Population Density (Person/Sq.Km)Ratio451"
Literacy%65.49"
Male%69.97"
Female%61"
Urbanisation%23.8Census 1991
Workers as % of total population%38.4"
Workers % of main Workers   
Agriculture & allied activities%67.88"
Mining & Quarrying%0.23"
Mfg.(Non-household) industries%5.26"
Household industries%3.25"
Construction%1.08"
Services%22.281997-98
Forest Area as % of reporting area%29.85"
Gross irrigated area as % of gross cropped area%60.98"
Value of output of major crops   
Per capita food grain productionKg.218"
Road Length per 100 sq.km.Km.60.61996-97
Railway route length per 100 sq.km.Km.1.17"
Post offices per 100,000 personsRatio19"
Bank branches per 100,000 personsRatio7.11994-95
Per capita bank depositsRs.2357.22"
Per capita bank creditRs.1544.32"
Per capita bank credit to agricultureRs.457.52"
Per ha. bank credit to agricultureRs.2906"
Per capita bank credit to SSIsRs.126.68"
Per capita bank credit to IndustriesRs.478.66"

An old and very small native settlement by name “Kakavandivada” was said to exist before the foreigners had set their foot somewhere around the place where the present Kakinada city had developed. The present name ‘Kakinada’, it is said, is derived from ‘Cocanada’ the name given to their new settlement by a few merchants of Dutch origin. The Dutch connection with the city is evident from the peculiar Dutch Character of the architecture and design of some of the old buildings here. Till then and for some years later, ‘Korangi’ the present small sea side village about 15 Kms. south of the present Kakinada town was a place of greater importance than ‘Cocanada’ from the view point of overseas trade and otherwise. Around the year 1905 the Cocanada Port facility was started to be made use of for export of some natural commodities. Mainly because of the transquil anchorage available in the shelter of the Godavari Sand Spit (also known as Hope Island) which is a nature’s gift to this Port-the town had also grown consistently (from the sixe of small foreigners settlement) keeping even pace with the growth of merchantile activity at the Port.

The manificience and far-sightedness of Sri Suryarao Bahadur, the illustrous Raja of Pithapuram was perhaps the most important factor that contributed to the later growth of the city. Most of the Institutions, Organisations and Associations which covered the fields of education, culture and social reform were started either with his personal initiative or with the help of his liberal donations and grants. Each of the Institutions and Organisations were to become, in the later years, the nucleie around which the development and growth of the Town tookplace. Greatmen of letters and men with intense zeal for social and political reform, even from outside the Andhra area, got attracted towards these Institutions.

The Cosmopolitan atmosphere that is built-up here, as a consequence, gave a rare and unique opportunity to atleast two generation of students and youth of this city and around to get exposed to new winds of liberal thought which were then blowing over the country. Sri Raghupati Venkataratnam Naidu, Maharshi Sambamurty, Sri Devulapalli Krishna Shastry, Smt. Durgabai Deshmukh, Sri. Gora and Sri Uppala Laxmana Rao were a few among the luminaries whose association with the city we can ever be proud of. All this made Kakinada one of the centres of Andhra cultural and intellectual rennaissance. The Brahma Samaj and the Theosophical movements naturally found Kakinada to be a highly fertile ground for their consolidation and spread. The city also had a tradition of high political consciousness right from the days of the freedom movement. The Late Maharshi Bulusu Sambamurty, Sri Mallipudi Pallam Raju, Sri Mosalakanti Tirumala Rao, Dr. Vedantam Krishnayya and his wife Kamala Devi, Sri Rangayya naidu and Sri Prativadi Bhayankarachari (of the Kakinada Bomb case fame) were some of the many who had inspired and led the movements here. The meeting of the Indian National Congress was held here in the year 1923 under the presidentship of the famous Mohammed Ali. The meetings were attended by Kasturba Gandhi, Vallabhai Patel, Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Rajagopalachari and other national leaders. Also, as part of the student and youth antiimperialist movement led by the Student Federation of India, the city had the fortune of hosting the Netaji Subhashchandra Bose in the year 1939. From the Trade Union view-point also, Kakinada was perhaps the first city in the area where municipal scavanging workers and the stevedore workers at the Port were organised for their collective struggles.

With this tradition for the city, Kakinada had developed as a cultural, educational and political centre. Pithapuram Raja’s Government College is now more than 100 years old. The men’s Polytechnic and the Women’s Polytechnic, when they were established here, were the first such Institutions in the Telugu Speaking area. At the commencement of the II World War, the Engineering College at Visakhapatnam had to be shifted to this place on a temperory basis and the college had to be regularised here after the end of the war when the public had agitated against it shift back to Visakhapatnam. In the year 1959, under the sage leadership of Dr. Col.Raju – ably assisted by Dr.M.V.Krishna Rao and Dr.P.V.N.Raju – Medical Education Society, Kakinada, was formed and the Society had (with the liberal donation received from the Rangaraya Trust, Tanuku) started Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada. Subsequently the college was takeover by the Government. Malladi Satyalingam Naicker’s Charities had established a group of educational institutions right rom the elementary school to a degree college and also a Vedic Pathasala to make the campus almost resemble a mini-university now. The Town Hall which was registered in the beginning of the Century; K.R.V.K.Library which was started in the year 1916 with the liberal donation of about 16,000 books from Sri K.R.V.Krishna Rao, Xamindar of Polavaram and the East Godavari Association the parent body for the Town Hall and the K.R.V.K.Library – have been centres for cultural activity here. The Youngmen’s Happy Club – another cultural association here gave its ranks some of the past and present top ranking artistes to the Telugu stage and filmdom. Srirama Samajam (founded in 1894 by the late Sri Munuganti Sriramulu), Sangeeta Vidwat Sabha and Saraswati Gana Sabha – are three local registered organisations serving the cause of classical music over the long years to the pleasure of the connoissseur. The Cocanada Chamber of Commerce exclusively representing the shipping and foreign trade interests and the Godavari Chamber of Commerce representing the general trade are the two local Trade Associations having a record of over 100 years of useful service to the trading and commercial circles.

Against this predominently cultural and educational back-ground, a conscious and sincere effort was made by two individuals Sri Nakka Suryanarayana Murthy and Sri V. Sathi Raju to put the city on the Industrial Map of the country. They have together started Sri Ramadas Motor Transport Company – now a gainst in the automobile industry manufacturing a wide range of auto parts of high quality. S.R.M.T. has also encouraged establishment and development of some ancillary units to itself. Sarvaraya Textiles (manufacturing cotton-yarn) is another industry that has put the city on the Industrial Map of the Nation. But, inspite of all this, industrial activity in the city had been tardy for a few decades mainly because of the lack of atleast one major industry in or around the city.

Establishment of Godavari Fertilisers and Chemicals Limited (manufacturing phosphatic fertilizer) and Nagarjuna Fertilisers and Chemicals Limited (manufacturing nitrogeneous fertilisers) at the above position and with the setting-up of the above fertiliser units, Kakinada is now aptly being called the “Fertiliser City”.

Kakinada Port which has been functioning as an Anchorage Port till now, is presently being developed as a Deep Water Berthing Port with the 250 crores financial assistance from the Asia Development Bank. Kakinada deep Water Port is expected to be commissioned with three shore-connected berths shortly.

The New Port facility that is comming up along with the availiability of petroleum and natural gas from the nearby offshore and on-shore locations for the Krishna-Godavari Basin, are presently opening up immense possibilities for establishment of port-based and gas-based heavy industries around Kakinada city. Any person endowed with a rational perspective vision into the conglomorate (covering atleast the four Municipal towns & cities of Kakinada. Pithapuram, Samalkot and Peddapuram) in the vast area surrounding Kakinada city.

It is very rare that any area gets such sudden and sure opportunity for development of Industry around as Kakinada city and its surrounding areas have fortunately got at the moment.

The Government, the municipal authorities, political parties and enlightened citizenry of city have to react positively and in time to provide a good push to this process of inudustrial development around the city of-course, taking simultaneously all the necessary precautions to avoid the un-desirable effects of un-planned sudden industrial growth over the socio-economic life of the city and its surrounding areas.

Kakinada Deep Sea Water Port:

The Port of Kakinada is on the Southern Part of East Coast of India at 16.59′ (North) & Longitude 82.19′.(East). It is the principal sea port amongst the minor ports in INDIA and is under the control of the government of the State of Andhra Pradesh. The maritime history of the Port dates as far back as the year 1805, when the port of “Coringa” nearby had to be closed due to shoalir.g. The port activities for handling sailing ships of those days took place near about the present Jagannaickpur Bridge. In order to prevent silting in the navigational channel groynes were built extending them from time to time towards the sea, to a length of about 5 Kms. Thus the present commercial canal with a length of about 5 Kms. and width of about 70 Mts. had been formed for maintaining depths for boat navigation.

This port is classified as an intermediate port and is all weather sheltered anchorage port. Kakinada Bay, with water spread of about 2.5 Sq.Km. is encircled and protected upto three quarters of its perimeter by the mainland and the Godavari sand spit, also known as “Hope Island”. This Island had originated about 200 years ago from the mouth of the river littoral drift along the shoreline and had extended to a length about 11 nautical miles so far, thus forming into a natural breakwater protecting the entire eastern portion from the fury of the sea and providing tranquility and shelter to the ships which are berthed at anchor in the Kakinada Bay. Thus, the port of Kakinada has become one of the safest natural harbours on the east coast of India.

Potential and Efficiency of Kakinada Port:

In the case of Kakinada Port, we can find easily that its potential from the view-point of cargo generation capacity of its hinter-land is being under-utilised.

The level of infrastructure available at the port is found to be far short of the requirements for handling export/import cargoes belonging to the industries that have come up or are proposed to be set-up in the port’s hinter-land.

Hence, for meeting the requirements of handling liquid cargoes like GFCL raw materials, POL or Hindusthan Petroleum Ltd., Etc., and for meeting the future requirements of growth and modernisation, the Deep Water Port facility is being created with 150 crore ADB financial assistance.